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In medieval times the counties of Lüchow and Dannenberg occupied the area (from the early 12th century on). These counties were originally Slavic states that lost their independence to the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the beginning of the 14th century.
The area was ruled by Lüneburg until 1705 and became then a part of the Electorate of Hanover. When the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia (1866), the districts of Lüchow and Dannenberg were established within the new Province of Hanover.
In 1932 the two districts of Lüchow and Dannenberg were merged into the current district with Dannenberg as capital. In 1951 the seat of the administration was moved to Lüchow.
The district is named for the two main towns. It is better known as the Wendland, a designation referring to the Slavic people of the Wends from Slavic tribe Drevani, who lived there till the 18th century — the last known user of the local dialect of Polabian language died in 1752. The landscape is characterised by riverside woodlands along the Elbe river and a hilly countryside.
In addition the Wendland is known for the tiny village of Gorleben (part of the Samtgemeinde Gartow), where a disposal place for radioactive waste was established. Gorleben has been a site of clashes between the police and protesters since the 1980s.
| The coat of arms displays:|
|1seat of the Samtgemeinde; 2town|