child welfare

child welfare

child welfare, services provided for the care of disadvantaged children. Foundling institutions for orphans and abandoned children were the earliest attempts at child care, usually under religious auspices. At first the goal was to provide minimum physical subsistence, but services have been expanded to include social and psychological help. In the late 18th cent., a movement developed around the idea that children should not simply be regarded as small adults, and such educators as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel were discussing children's special needs at the same time that the Industrial Revolution intensified the nonagricultural exploitation of child labor. In the 19th cent. many religious and private institutions were organized to take care of children who were orphaned, destitute, or handicapped. In child-welfare legislation, the British Children's Charter Act of 1908 and the Ohio Children's Code Commission of 1911 marked a new era. The idea that it was the responsibility of the community to provide children with the advantages that their parents could not supply is a 20th-century development. In this category are free school lunches; medical, dental, and psychiatric services and child guidance clinics in schools; playgrounds; children's courts; special schools for handicapped children; and care in foster families for children of broken homes. Infant and child clinics are often provided by municipalities. Many social welfare agencies finance summer camps for both healthy and handicapped children. In the United States child welfare services are administered through the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. A series of new child welfare programs were passed by Congress in the 1960s. These included the Child Nutrition Act, the Head Start Program, and the Foster Grandparent Program. The International Union for Child Welfare (1920) organized relief for child victims of major international and national disasters. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, 1946) targets malnutrition and helps reestablish children's services destroyed in war. Current child welfare concerns include child abuse and child care (see day nursery).

See J. Packman, Child Care Needs and Numbers (1968); D. Zietz, Child Welfare (2d ed. 1969); L. Costin, Child Welfare (new ed. 1972); A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, Social Services in International Perspective (1980), Helping America's Families (1982), and Child Support (1987); V. Zelizer, Pricing the Priceless Child (1985); A. Kadushin and J. A. Martin, Child Welfare Services (4th ed. 1988).

The Child Welfare League of Canada, or CWLC, is a membership based national organization dedicated to promoting the well-being and protection of vulnerable young people. It plays a significant role in promoting best practices among those in the field of child welfare, including child protective services, children’s mental health and youth justice across Canada.

Present

The Child Welfare League of Canada is a national organization with over 115 members in all provinces and territories, including representation at the federal level. Member organizations include provincial/territorial ministries of child and family services, child and family service agencies, health and social services, youth services and federal government departments. CWLC members serve over a million families and children each year.

Membership and the services of the CWLC are open and accessible to organizations and persons of all cultures, ethnic origins and social classes. CWLC provides services, publications and information in both official languages.

The Child Welfare League of Canada is involved in working with foster families and foster care through the Parenting Resources Information Development Education (PRIDE) program, co-hosting the Centre of Excellence for Child Welfare and assisting governments through the National Consultation Centre to develop best practice models in regard to looking after vulnerable children and youth.

History

Many years before the Child Welfare League of Canada (CWLC) was founded, Canadians working in the field of child and youth services were active in the Child Welfare League of America, the oldest and largest North American organization devoted to the well-being of children. Canadian agencies and government departments have been members of the CWLA since the late 1920s.

In the mid-1980s, a number of Canadian members asked the CWLA to provide stronger membership services in Canada, and as a result, the CWLA hired a Canadian consultant to provide membership support and to conduct a needs assessment.

Two priorities emerged: first, the need for a Canadian public policy symposium and, second, the need to explore the potential for a stronger, more permanent CWLA presence in Canada, possibly with a Canadian office.

Working in partnership with the Canadian Council on Children and Youth and the Canadian Child Welfare Association, Canadian members of the CWLA proceeded to plan a major public policy symposium on children’s issues. The CWLA provided the secretariat function and seed funding during the planning phase and coordinated the symposium, called "Canada’s Children: The Priority for the ‘90s", which was held in Ottawa in October 1991.

The symposium was a catalyst for more action at the national level through continuing alliances and follow-up with federal politicians and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. As a result of the conference, several provincial coalitions developed, which today continue to work on behalf of children and youth.

A Canadian office of the CWLA opened in Ottawa in January, 1992. It was able to respond to the need for a stronger emphasis on public policy and advocacy – functions that could not be handled by a headquarters in the U.S.

In May 1992, CWLA/Canada members set up a National Steering Committee, chaired by Monsignor William Irwin of Edmonton Catholic Social Services, to shape a Canadian organization. The goal was to provide member support not available from existing Canadian organizations and to work with other organizations to prevent duplication of effort.

The National Steering Committee recommended the establishment of the Child Welfare League of Canada, which would continue its affiliation with CWLA to ensure Canadian members access to special CWLA services and publications. The CWLA agreed to provide financial support for the Canadian organization for three years.

The Child Welfare League of Canada was incorporated under federal law in April 1994 and received its status as a non-governmental organization in October 1994.

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