, or Ree
(ראה — Hebrew
for “see,” the first word in the parshah) is the 47th weekly Torah portion
) in the annual Jewish
cycle of Torah reading
and the fourth in the book of Deuteronomy
. It constitutes Jews
in the Diaspora
generally read it in August or early September.
Blessing and curse
told the Israelites
that he set before them blessing
: blessing if they obeyed God’s commandments
and curse if they did not obey but turned away to follow other gods. Moses directed that when God brought them into the land
, they were to pronounce the blessings at Mount Gerizim
and the curses at Mount Ebal
Moses instructed the Israelites in the laws
that they were to observe in the land: They were to destroy all the sites at which the residents worshiped
their gods, tear down their altars
, smash their pillars, put their sacred posts to the fire, and cut down the images
of their gods. They were not to worship God as the land’s residents had worshiped their gods, but to look only to the site that God would choose as God’s habitation to establish God’s name. There they were to bring their burnt offerings and other sacrifices
and contributions, offerings, and the firstlings of their herds
and flocks. There, together with their households, they were to feast before God, happy in all God’s blessings. Moses warned them not to sacrifice burnt offerings in any place, but only in the place that God would choose. But whenever they desired, they could slaughter
and eat meat
in any of their settlements, so long as they did not partake of the blood, which they were to pour on the ground. They were not, however, to consume in their settlements their tithes, firstlings, votive offerings, freewill offerings, or contributions; these they were to consume along with their children
, and their local Levites
before God in the place that God would choose.
Not following other gods
Moses warned them against being lured into the ways of the residents of the land, and against inquiring about their gods, for the residents performed for their gods every abhorrent act that God detested, even offering up their sons and daughters in fire to their gods.
Moses warned the Israelites carefully to observe only that which he enjoined upon them, neither adding to it nor taking away from it. If a prophet appeared before them and gave them a sign or a portent and urged them to worship another god, even if the sign or portent came true, they were not to heed the words of that prophet, but put the offender to death. If a brother, son, daughter, wife, or closest friend enticed one in secret to worship other gods, the Israelites were to show no pity, but stone the offender to death. And if they heard that some scoundrels had subverted the inhabitants of a town to worship other gods, the Israelites were to investigate thoroughly, and if they found it true, they were to destroy the inhabitants and the cattle of that town, burning the town and all its spoil as a holocaust to God. Moses prohibited the Israelites from gashing themselves or shaving the front of their heads because of the dead. ()
Moses prohibited the Israelites from eating anything abhorrent. Among land animals, they could eat ox
, wild goat
, mountain sheep
, and any other animal that has true hoofs that are cleft in two and chews cud. But the Israelites were not to eat or touch the carcasses of camel
, daman, or swine
. Of animals that live in water, they could eat anything that has fins
, but nothing else. They could eat any clean bird, but could not eat eagle
, black vulture
, sea gull
, or bat
. They could not eat any winged swarming
things. They could not eat anything that had died a natural death, but they could give it to the stranger or you sell it to a foreigner. They could not boil a kid in its mother’s milk
They were to set aside every year a tenth part of all the yield of their harvest. They were to consume the tithes of their new grain
, and oil
, and the firstlings of their herds and flocks, in the presence of God in the place where God would choose to establish God’s name. If the distance was too great to transport, they could convert the tithes or firstlings into money, take the proceeds to the place that God had chosen, and spend the money and feast there. But they were not to neglect the Levite in their community, for the Levites had no hereditary portion of land. Every third year, they were to bring out the full tithe, but leave it within their settlements, and the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow
in their settlements could come and eat their fill. ()
Every seventh year, the Israelites were to remit debts
from fellow Israelites, although they could continue to dun foreigners
There would be no needy among them if only they heeded God and kept all God’s laws, for God would bless them. But if one of their kinsmen fell into need, they were not to harden their hearts, but were to open their hands
and lend what the kinsman needed. The Israelites were not to harbor the base thought that the year of remission was approaching and not lend, but they were to lend readily to their kinsman, for in return God would bless them in all their efforts. ()
The Hebrew slave
If a fellow Hebrew was sold into servitude, the Hebrew slave would serve six years, and in the seventh year go free. When the master set the slave free, the master was to give the former slave parting gifts
. Should the slave tell the master that the slave did not want to leave, the master was to take an awl
and put it through the slave’s ear into the door, and the slave was to become the master’s slave in perpetuity. ()
The Israelites were to consecrate to God all male firstlings that were born in their herds and flocks eat it with their household before God in the place that God would choose. If it had a defect, they were not to sacrifice it, but eat it in their settlements, as long as they poured out its blood on the ground.
Moses instructed the Israelites to observe Passover
, and Sukkot
. Three times a year, on those three festivals, all Israelite men were to appear before God in the place that God would choose, each with his own gift, according to the blessing that God had bestowed upon him. ()
In inner-biblical interpretation
Deuteronomy chapter 12
like addresses the centralization of sacrifices and the permissibility of eating meat. prohibited killing an ox, lamb, or goat (each a sacrificial animal) without bringing it to the door of the Tabernacle as an offering to God. however, allows killing and eating meat in any place.
2 Kings and 2 Chronicles recount how King Josiah implemented the centralization called for in
In early nonrabbinic interpretation
Deuteronomy chapter 12
interpreted the centralization of worship in to teach that just as there is only one God, there would be only one Temple; and the Temple was to be common to all people, just as God is the God for all people. (Against Apion Against_Apion/Book_II
In classical rabbinic interpretation
Deuteronomy chapter 11
The Rabbis taught that the words of “Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse,” demonstrate that God did not set before the Israelites the Blessings and the Curses of and to hurt them, but only to show them the good way that they should choose in order to receive reward. (Deuteronomy Rabbah
4:1.) Rabbi Levi compared the proposition of to a master who offered his servant a golden necklace if the servant would do the master’s will, or iron chains if he did not. (Deuteronomy Rabbah 4:2.) Rabbi Haggai taught that not only had God in set two paths before the Israelites, but God did not administer justice to them according to the strict letter of the law, but allowed them mercy so that they might (in the words of ) “choose life.” (Deuteronomy Rabbah 4:3.) And Rabbi Joshua ben Levi
taught that when a person makes the choice that urges and observes the words of the Torah, a procession of angels passes before the person to guard the person from evil, bringing into effect the promised blessing. (Deuteronomy Rabbah 4:4.)
The Mishnah noted the common mention of the terebinths of Moreh in and and deduced that Gerizim and Ebal were near Shechem. (Mishnah Sotah 7:5; Babylonian Talmud Sotah 32a.) But Rabbi Judah deduced from the words “beyond the Jordan” in that Gerizim and Ebal were some distance beyond the Jordan. Rabbi Judah deduced from the words “behind the way of the going down of the sun” in that Gerizim and Ebal were far from the east, where the sun rises. And Rabbi Judah also deduced from the words “over against Gilgal” in that Gerizim and Ebal were close to Gilgal. Rabbi Eleazar ben Jose said, however, that the words “Are they not beyond the Jordan” in indicated that Gerizim and Ebal were near the Jordan. (Babylonian Talmud Sotah 32b.)
Deuteronomy chapter 12
Rabbi Jose son of Rabbi Judah derived from the use of the two instances of the verb “destroy” in the Hebrew for “you shall surely destroy” in that the Israelites were to destroy the Canaanite’s idols twice, and the Rabbis explained that this meant by cutting them and then by uprooting them from the ground. The Gemara
explained that Rabbi Jose derived from the words “and you shall destroy their name out of that place” in that the place of the idol must be renamed. And Rabbi Eliezer deduced from the same words in that the Israelites were to eradicate every trace of the idol. (Babylonian Talmud Avodah Zarah 45b.)
The Mishnah recounted the history of decentralized sacrifice. Before the Tabernacle, high places were permitted, and Israelite firstborn performed the sacrifices. After the Israelites set up the Tabernacle, high places were forbidden, and priests performed the services. When the Israelites entered the Promised Land and came to Gilgal, high places were again permitted. When the Israelites came to Shiloh, high places were again forbidden. The Tabernacle there had no roof, but consisted of a stone structure covered with cloth. The Mishnah interpreted the Tabernacle at Shiloh to be the “rest” to which Moses referred in . When the Israelites came to Nob and Gibeon, high places were again permitted. And when the Israelites came to Jerusalem, high places were forbidden and never again permitted. The Mishnah interpreted the sanctuary in Jerusalem to be “the inheritance” to which Moses referred in . (Mishnah Zevachim 14:4–8; Babylonian Talmud Zevachim 112b.)
Tractate Chullin in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of the slaughter of animals for purposes other than sacrifice in (Mishnah Chullin 1:1–12:5; Tosefta Shechitat Chullin 1:1–10:16; Babylonian Talmud Chullin 2a–142a.)
Tractate Bikkurim in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud interpreted the laws of the first fruits in and and 26:1–11. (Mishnah Bikkurim 1:1–3:12; Tosefta Bikkurim 1:1–2:16; Jerusalem Talmud Bikkurim.)
Deuteronomy chapter 13
The Jerusalem Talmud interpreted — “a prophet . . . gives you a sign or a wonder” — to demonstrate that a prophet’s authority depends on the prophet’s producing a sign or wonder. (Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 12a.)
Mishnah Sanhedrin 10:4 –6 and Tosefta Sanhedrin 14:1–6 interpreted to address the law of the apostate town. The Mishnah held that only a court of 71 judges could declare such a city, and the court could not declare cities on the frontier or three cities within one locale to be apostate cities. (Mishnah Sanhedrin 1:5.)
Deuteronomy chapter 14
and Maaser Sheni
in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud interpreted the laws of tithes in Leviticus 27:30–33, Numbers 18:21-24,
and (Mishnah Maasrot 1:1–5:8; Tosefta Maasrot 1:1–3:16; Jerusalem Talmud Maasrot 1a–46a; Mishnah Maaser Sheni 1:1–5:15; Tosefta Maaser Sheni 1:1–5:30; Jerusalem Talmud Maaser Sheni 1a–.) Mishnah Peah 8:5–9 and Tosefta Peah 4:2–10 interpreted to address the tithe given to the poor and the Levite.
Deuteronomy chapter 15
in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud interpreted the laws of the Sabbatical year in and and 31:10–13.
(Mishnah Sheviit 1:1–10:9; Tosefta Sheviit 1:1–8:11; Jerusalem Talmud Sheviit 1a–87b.)
Mishnah Sheviit chapter 10 and Tosefta Sheviit 8:3–11 interpreted to address debts and the Sabbatical year. The Mishnah held that the Sabbatical year cancelled loans, whether they were secured by a bond or not, but did not cancel debts to a shopkeeper or unpaid wages of a laborer, unless these debts were made into loans. (Mishnah Sheviit 10:1.) When Hillel saw people refraining from lending, in transgression of he ordained the prosbul, which ensured the repayment of loans notwithstanding the Sabbatical year. (Mishnah Sheviit 10:3.) Citing the literall meaning of — “this is the word of the release” — the Mishnah held that a creditor could accept payment of a debt notwithstanding an intervening Sabbatical year, if the creditor had first by word told the debtor that the creditor relinquished the debt. (Mishnah Sheviit 10:8.)
Rabbi Isaac taught that the words of “mighty in strength that fulfill His word,” speak of those who observe the Sabbatical year. Rabbi Isaac said that we often find that a person fulfills a precept for a day, a week, or a month, but it is remarkable to find one who does so for an entire year. Rabbi Isaac asked whether one could find a mightier person than one who sees his field untilled, see his vineyard untilled, and yet pays his taxes and does not complain. And Rabbi Isaac noted that uses the words “that fulfill His word (dabar),” and says regarding observance of the Sabbatical year, “And this is the manner (dabar) of the release,” and argued that “dabar” means the observance of the Sabbatical year in both places. (Leviticus Rabbah 1:1.)
Deuteronomy chapter 16
in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud
interpreted the laws of the Passover in Exodus 12:3–27, 43–49; 13:6–10; 34:25; Leviticus 23:4–8; Numbers 9:1–14;
and (Mishnah Pesachim 1:1–10:9;
Tosefta Pisha 1:1–10:13; Jerusalem Talmud Pesachim 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Pesachim 2a–121b.)
Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah argued that Jews must mention the Exodus every night, but did not prevail in his argument until Ben Zoma argued that which commands a Jew to remember the Exodus “all the days of your life,” used the word “all” to mean both day and night. (Mishnah/Seder Zeraim/Tractate Berakhot/Chapter 1/5)
The Mishnah reported that Jews read on Shavuot. (Mishnah Megillah 3:5.) So as to maintain a logical unit including at least 15 verses, Jews now read on Shavuot.
Tractate Sukkah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Sukkot in 34:22; and 31:10–13. (Mishnah Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Tosefta Sukkah 1:1–4:28; Jerusalem Talmud Sukkah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 2a–56b.)
Mishnah Chagigah 1:1 –8 and Tosefta Chagigah 1:1–7 interpreted to address the obligation to bring an offering on the three pilgrim festivals.
According to Sefer ha-Chinuch
, there are 17 positive and 38 negative commandments
in the parshah.
- To destroy idols and their accessories
- Not to destroy objects associated with God’s Name
- To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival
- Not to offer any sacrifices outside the Temple courtyard
- To offer all sacrifices in the Temple
- To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified
- Not to eat the second tithe of grains outside Jerusalem
- Not to eat the second tithe of wine products outside Jerusalem
- Not to eat the second tithe of oil outside Jerusalem
- The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem
- The Kohanim must not eat sacrificial meat outside the Temple courtyard
- Not to eat the meat of the burnt offering
- Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood on the altar
- The Kohanim must not eat first fruits before they are set down in the Sanctuary grounds
- Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites
- To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it
- Not to eat a limb or part taken from a living animal
- To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple
- Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations
- Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part
- Not to listen to a false prophet
- Not to love an enticer to idolatry
- Not to cease hating the enticer to idolatry
- Not to save the enticer to idolatry
- Not to say anything in defense of the enticer to idolatry
- Not to refrain from incriminating the enticer to idolatry
- Not to entice an individual to idol worship
- Carefully interrogate the witness
- To burn a city that has turned to idol worship
- Not to rebuild it as a city
- Not to derive benefit from it
- Not to tear the skin in mourning
- Not to make a bald spot in mourning
- Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished ().
- To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher
- Not to eat non-kosher flying insects
- Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter
- To set aside the second tithe (Ma'aser Sheni)
- To separate the tithe for the poor
- Not to pressure or claim from the borrower after the seventh year
- To press the idolater for payment
- To release all loans during the seventh year
- Not to withhold charity from the poor
- To give charity
- Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss
- Not to send the Hebrew slave away empty-handed
- Give the Hebrew slave gifts when he goes free
- Not to work consecrated animals
- Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals
- Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nisan
- Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th ()
- Not to offer a Passover offering on one’s provisional altar ()
- To rejoice on these three Festivals
- To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot
- Not to appear at the Temple without offerings
(Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 4:357–511. Jerusalem: Feldheim Pub., 1988. ISBN 0-87306-457-7.)
for the parshah is Isaiah 54:11–55:5.
The haftarah is the third in the cycle of seven haftarot of consolation after Tisha B'Av
, leading up to Rosh Hashanah
When Parshah Re'eh coincides with Shabbat Machar Chodesh (as it does in 2008), the haftarah is 1 Samuel 20:18–42.
In the liturgy
In the Passover Haggadah
(which takes the story from Mishnah Mishnah/Seder Zeraim/Tractate Berakhot/Chapter 1/5
), Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah
discusses Ben Zoma’s
exposition on in the discussion among the Rabbis at Bnei Brak
in the answer to the Four Questions (Ma Nishtana
) in the magid
section of the Seder
. (Menachem Davis. The Interlinear Haggadah: The Passover Haggadah, with an Interlinear Translation, Instructions and Comments
, 37. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2005. ISBN 1-57819-064-9. Joseph Tabory. JPS Commentary on the Haggadah: Historical Introduction, Translation, and Commentary
, 85. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8276-0858-0.)
The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
- Genesis 14:20 (tithe); 28:22 (tithe).
- Exodus 12:3–27, 43–49 (Passover); 13:6–10 (Passover); 21:1–11, 20–21, 26–27; 22:1–2; 23:14–19 (three pilgrim festivals); 34:22–26 (three pilgrim festivals).
- Leviticus (centralization of sacrifices); 23:4–43 (three pilgrim festivals); 25:8–10, 39–55; 27:30–33 (tithes).
- Numbers 9:1–14 (Passover); 18:21-24 (tithes); 28:16–31 (Passover, Shavuot); 29:12–34 (Sukkot).
- 21:10–14; 23:16–17; 26:13–14; 30:19 (I set before you blessing and curse); 31:10–13 (Sukkot).
- Judges 21:19 (Sukkot).
- 1 Samuel 8:15–17 (tithes).
- 1 Kings 8:1–66 (Sukkot); 12:32 (northern feast like Sukkot); 18:28 (ceremonial cutting).
- 2 Kings 4:1–7 (debt servitude); (centralization of sacrifices).
- Isaiah 61:1–2 (liberty to captives).
- Jeremiah 16:6; 34:6–27; 41:5 (ceremonial cutting); 48:37 (ceremonial cutting).
- Ezekiel 6:13 (idols on hill, on mountains, under every leafy tree); 45:25 (Sukkot).
- Hosea 4:13 (idols on mountains, on hill, under tree).
- Amos 2:6; 4:4–5 (tithes).
- Zechariah 14:16–19 (Sukkot).
- Malachi 3:10 (tithes).
- Ezra 3:4 (Sukkot).
- Nehemiah 5:1–13; 8:14–18 (Sukkot); 10:38–39 (tithes); 12:44, 47 (tithes); 13:5, 12–13 (tithes).
- 2 Chronicles 5:3–14 (Sukkot); 7:8 (Sukkot); 8:12–13 (three Pilgrim festivals); 31:4–12 (tithes); (centralization of sacrifices).
- 1 Maccabees 3:49; 10:31; 11:35 Land of Israel, circa 100 B.C.E. (tithes).
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 4:8:2–5, 7–8, 13, 28, 44–45. Circa 93–94. Against Apion Against_Apion/Book_II Circa 97. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston, 114–17, 121, 123–24, 806. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
- Hebrews 7:1–10 (tithes).
- Matthew 23:23–24 (tithes).
- Luke 18:9–14 (tithes).
- John 7:1-53 (Sukkot).
- Mishnah: Mishnah/Seder Zeraim/Tractate Berakhot/Chapter 1/5 Peah 8:5–9; Sheviit 10:1–9; Terumot 3:7; Maaser Sheni 1:1–4:12; Challah 1:3; Bikkurim 2:4; Shabbat 9:6; Megillah 1:3, 3:5; Chagigah 1:1 –8; Ketubot 5:6; Sotah 7:5, 8; Kiddushin 1:2–3; Sanhedrin 1:3, 5, 10:4 –6; Makkot 3:5, 15; Avodah Zarah 3:3 –4; Avot 3:14; Zevachim 9:5, 14:2, 6; Menachot 7:6–8:1; Chullin 1:1–12:5; Bekhorot 4:1; Arakhin 8:7. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
- Tosefta: Berakhot 1:10; Peah 1:1, 4:2–10, 17, 20; Sheviit 8:3–11; Kilayim 1:9; Maaser Sheni 1:1–5:12; Pisha 6:2; Sukkah 2:1; Megillah 3:5; Chagigah 1:1, 4–8; Ketubot 6:8; Sotah 7:17, 8:7, 10:2, 14:7; Bava Kamma 9:30; Sanhedrin 3:5–6, 7:2, 14:1–6; Makkot 5:8–9; Shevuot 3:8; Avodah Zarah 3:19, 6:10; Horayot 2:9; Zevachim 4:2, 13:16, 20; Shechitat Chullin 1:1, 7:9, 8:11; Menachot 9:2; Bekhorot 1:9, 7:1; Arakhin 4:26. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
- Sifre to Deuteronomy 53:1–143:5. Land of Israel, circa 250–350 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifre to Deuteronomy: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:175–342. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-145-7.
- Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 12a, 16b, 27a, 32b; Peah 15b, 42b, 72a; Sheviit 13a–b, 14b; Maasrot 1a–46a; Maaser Sheni 1a–59b; Bikkurim 1a–; Pesachim 1a–; Sukkah 1a–. Land of Israel, circa 400 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, vols. 1–3, 6a, 9–10. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006–2008.
- Babylonian Talmud: Berakhot 9a, 12b, 21a, 31b, 34b, 39b, 45a, 47b; Shabbat 22b, 31a, 54a, 63a, 90a, 94b, 108a, 119a, 120b, 128a, 130a, 148b, 151b; Eruvin 27a–28a, 31b, 37a, 80b, 96a, 100a; Pesachim 2a–121b; Yoma 2b, 34b, 36b, 56a, 70b, 75b–76a; Sukkah 2a–56b; Beitzah 5a, 7b, 10b, 12a, 15b, 19b, 25b, 26b, 32b; Rosh Hashanah 4b–7a, 8a, 12b–13a, 14a, 21a, 28a; Taanit 9a, 21a; Megillah 5a, 9b–10a, 16b, 30b–31a; Moed Katan 2b–3a, 7b–8b, 12a, 13a, 14b, 15b, 18b–19a, 20a, 24b; Chagigah 2a–b, 3b, 4b, 5b–6b, 7b–9a, 10b, 16b–18a; Yevamot 9a, 13b, 62b, 73a–b, 74b, 79a, 83b, 86a, 93a, 104a, 122b; Ketubot 43a, 55a, 58b, 60a, 67b–68a, 89a; Nedarim 13a, 19a, 31a, 36b, 59b; Nazir 4b, 25a, 35b, 49b–50a; Sotah 14a, 23b, 32a–b, 33b, 38a, 39b, 41a, 47b–48a; Gittin 18a, 25a, 30a, 31a, 36a, 37a–b, 38b, 47a, 65a; Kiddushin 11b, 14b–15a, 16b–17b, 20a, 21b–22b, 26a, 29b, 34a–b, 35b–36a, 37a, 38b, 56b–57b, 80b; Bava Kamma 7a, 10a, 41a, 54a–b, 63a, 69b, 78a, 82b, 87b, 91b, 98a, 106b, 110b, 115b; Bava Metzia 6b, 27b, 30b, 31b, 33a, 42a, 44b–45a, 47b, 48b, 53b–54a, 56a, 88b, 90a; Bava Batra 8a, 10a, 63a, 80b, 91a, 145b; Sanhedrin 2a, 4a–b, 11b, 13b, 15b, 20b, 21b, 29a, 30b, 32a, 33b, 34b, 36b, 40a–41a, 43a, 45b, 47a–b, 50a, 52b, 54b, 55a, 56a, 59a, 60b, 61a–b, 63a–b, 64b, 70a, 71a, 78a, 84a, 85b, 87a, 89b, 90a, 109a, 111b, 112b, 113a; Makkot 3a–b, 5a, 8b, 11a, 12a, 13a, 14b, 16b–20a, 21a–22a, 23b; Shevuot 4b, 16a, 22b–23a, 25a, 34a, 44b, 49a; Avodah Zarah 9b, 12a–b, 13b, 20a, 34b, 36b, 42a, 43b, 44b, 45b, 51a–52a, 53b, 66a, 67b; Horayot 4b, 8a, 13a; Zevachim 7b, 9a, 12a, 29b, 34a, 36b, 45a, 49a, 50a, 52b, 55a, 60b, 62b, 76a, 85b, 97a, 104a, 106a, 107a–b, 112b, 114a–b, 117b–18a, 119a; Menachot 23a, 33b, 37b, 40b, 44b–45a, 65b–66a, 67a, 70b–71a, 77b, 78b, 81b–82a, 83a–b, 90b, 93a, 99b, 101b; Chullin 2a–142a; Bekhorot 4b, 6b–7a, 9b–10a, 11b–12a, 14b–15b, 19a, 21b, 23b, 25a, 26b, 27b–28a, 30a, 32a, 33a, 37a–b, 39a, 41a–b, 43a, 50b–51a, 53a–b, 54b, 56b; Arachin 7b, 28b–29a, 30b, 31b, 33a; Temurah 8a, 11b–12a, 17b, 18b, 21a–b, 28b, 31a; Keritot 3b, 4b, 21a, 24a, 27a; Meilah 13b, 15b–16a; Niddah 13a, 24a, 25a, 40a. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 vols. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
- Deuteronomy Rabbah 4:1–11. Land of Israel, 9th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Exodus Rabbah 30:5, 16. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S. M. Lehrman. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Rashi. Commentary. Deuteronomy 11–16. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, 5:119–79. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-030-7.
- Judah Halevi. Kuzari. Kitab al Khazari/Part Three Kitab al Khazari/Part Four Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 173, 241. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Intro.:3. Cairo, Egypt, 1170–1180.
- Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed, The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_I#CHAPTER_XXIV The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_I#CHAPTER_XXXVI The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_I#CHAPTER_XXXVIII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_I#CHAPTER_XLI The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_I#CHAPTER_LIV The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_II/Chapters#CHAPTER_XXXII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XVII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XXIV The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XXIX The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XXXII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XXXIX The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLI The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLV The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLVI The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLVII The_Guide_for_the_Perplexed_%28Friedlander%29/Part_III/Chapters#CHAPTER_XLVIII Cairo, Egypt, 1190. Reprinted in, e.g., Moses Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed. Translated by Michael Friedländer, 34, 51, 54, 56, 77–78, 221, 288, 304–05, 317, 320, 323, 325, 339–40, 347, 351, 355, 357–358 358, 362, 366–67, 371. New York: Dover Publications, 1956. ISBN 0-486-20351-4.
- Zohar 1:3a, 82b, 157a, 163b, 167b, 184a, 242a, 245b; 2:5b, 20a, 22a, 38a, 40a, 89b, 94b, 98a, 121a, 124a, 125a–b, 128a, 148a, 168a, 174b; 3:7b, 20b, 104a, 206a, 296b. Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g, The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
- Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, Leviathan/The_Third_Part#Chapter_XXXII:_Of_the_Principles_of_Christian_Politics Leviathan/The_Third_Part#Chapter_XXXVI:_Of_the_Word_of_God.2C_and_of_Prophets Leviathan/The_Third_Part#Chapter_XXXVII:_Of_Miracles_and_Their_Use Leviathan/The_Fourth_Part#Chapter_XLIV:_Of_Spiritual_Darkness_from_Misinterpretation_of_Scripture Leviathan/The_Fourth_Part#A_REVIEW_AND_CONCLUSION England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 412, 461, 466–67, 476, 638, 724. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
- Thomas Mann. Joseph and His Brothers. Translated by John E. Woods, 109. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4001-9. Originally published as Joseph und seine Brüder. Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1943.
- Martin Buber. On the Bible: Eighteen studies, 80–92. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.
- Jacob Milgrom. “‘You Shall Not Boil a Kid in Its Mother’s Milk’: An archaeological myth destroyed.” Bible Review. 1 (3) (Fall 1985): 48–55.
- Jacob Milgrom. "Ethics and Ritual: The Foundations of the Biblical Dietary Laws." In Religion and Law: Biblical, Jewish, and Islamic Perspectives, 159–91. Edited by E.B. Firmage. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1989. ISBN 0931464390.
- Jacob Milgrom. “Food and Faith: The Ethical Foundations of the Biblical Diet Laws: The Bible has worked out a system of restrictions whereby humans may satiate their lust for animal flesh and not be dehumanized. These laws teach reverence for life.” Bible Review. 8 (6) (Dec. 1992).
- Jeffrey H. Tigay. The JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation, 116–59, 446–70. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996. ISBN 0-8276-0330-4.
- Jacob Milgrom. “Jubilee: A Rallying Cry for Today’s Oppressed: The laws of the Jubilee year offer a blueprint for bridging the gap between the have and have-not nations.” Bible Review. 13 (2) (Apr. 1997).
- Jack M. Sasson. “Should Cheeseburgers Be Kosher? A Different Interpretation of Five Hebrew Words.” Bible Review 19 (6) (Dec. 2003): 40–43, 50–51.
- Naphtali S. Meshel. “Food for Thought: Systems of Categorization in Leviticus 11.” Harvard Theological Review 101 (2) (Apr. 2008): 203, 207, 209–13.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2008