Chequers, or Chequers Court, is a country house near Ellesborough, to the south east of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England, at the foot of the Chiltern Hills. It is the country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Another explanation sometimes offered is that the house is named after the Chequers Trees that grow in its grounds. Also known as Wild Service Tree (Sorbus torminalis), it produces small berries which are called Chequers. There is a reference to this in the book Elizabeth: Apprenticeship by David Starkey, which describes the early life of Elizabeth I.
The present 16th-century house was not well documented in its early years; what is known is that one William Hawtrey restored and enlarged the house in 1565. A reception room in the house bears his name today. It was this same William Hawtrey who, immediately after completing the house, had the dubious honour of guarding a royal prisoner at Chequers—Lady Mary Grey, younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and great granddaughter of King Henry VII. She had married without her family's consent and was banished from court by Queen Elizabeth I and kept confined to ensure that, in the words of that great virgin Queen, "there were no little bastards". For two years the unfortunate Lady Mary languished at Chequers, although probably not in too much discomfort. The "cell" where she slept from 1565 to 1567 is still kept as it was, and appears, even by today's standards, quite a comfortable bedroom, in the best "olde worlde" tradition of interior design. The real reason for her imprisonment was probably to curb her independence, and prevent a challenge to the throne, such as that caused by her elder sister.
Through descent in the female line and marriages, the house passed through several families: the Wooleys; the Croke family; the Thurbane Family. In 1715, the then owner of the house married a John Russell, a grandson of Oliver Cromwell. The house is well known for this connection to the Cromwells, and it still contains a large collection of Cromwell memorabilia.
In the 19th century, the Russells (by now the Greenhill-Russell family) employed William Atkinson to make modern alterations to the house in the gothic style. The Tudor panelling and windows were ripped out and battlements with pinnacles installed. Towards the end of the 19th century, the house passed through marriage to the Astley family. Instead of taking up residence, they let the house to the Clutterbuck family, who loved the house so much that when they left in 1909 they had a near replica built in Bedfordshire.
Following the Clutterbucks' departure, the house was taken on a long lease by a Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Lee. Arthur Lee (a politician born in 1868) and his American heiress wife Ruth were in need of a country home and Chequers suited their needs. Immediately they commenced the huge process of restoration; the gothic "improvements" were swept away and the Tudor style house seen today re-emerged from the scaffolding. In 1912 following the death of the last of the house's ancestral owners (Henry Delavel Astley), Ruth Lee and her sister purchased the property and later gave it to Arthur Lee.
During World War I the house became a hospital and then a convalescent home for officers. Following the end of hostilities and the reinstatement of Chequers as a home (now furnished with many 16th-century antiques and tapestries and the Cromwellian antiquities), the childless Lees formed a plan. While previous Prime Ministers had always belonged to the landed classes, the post-World War I era was bringing in a new breed of politician. These men did not have the country palaces of previous prime ministers to entertain foreign dignitaries, or a tranquil place to relax from the affairs of state. Hence, after lengthy discussions with then Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Chequers was given to the nation as a country retreat for the serving Prime Minister by the "Chequers Estate Act 1917".
Arthur and Ruth Lee, by this time Lord and Lady Lee of Fareham, left Chequers on 8 January 1921 after a final dinner at the house. A political disagreement between the Lees and Lloyd George soured the hand-over, which went ahead nevertherless.
A stained glass window in the long gallery of the house commissioned by Lord and Lady Lee of Farnham bears the inscription:
The property houses one of the largest collections of art and memorabilia pertaining to Oliver Cromwell in the country. It also houses many other national antiques and books held in the infamous 'long room', including a diary of Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson. However, this exquisite collection is not open to the public.
During the early part of World War II, it was considered that security at Chequers was inadequate to protect Prime Minister Winston Churchill. He therefore used Ditchley in Oxfordshire until late 1942, by when the road which could be clearly seen from the sky had been camouflaged and other security measures had been put in place, and the Nazis were focusing the Luftwaffe on Russia.
Before becoming Prime Minister in 2007, Gordon Brown expressed that he would be the first Prime Minister since Andrew Bonar Law in 1923, to dispense with Chequers as a regular weekend retreat. It will instead be used for international summits and brainstorming sessions with civil servants. And yet, despite these predictions to the contrary, the Browns have reputedly fallen in love with Chequers, they spend most weekends there, the house has been filled most weekends with friends, editors, sportsmen and actors, as well as politicians, David and Victoria Beckham and local dignitaries like Sir Leonard Figg; "they have become obsessed by their new home.