(Челя́бинск) is a city
, located just to the east of the Ural Mountains
, on Miass River
. It is the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was constructed on the site in 1736; the city was incorporated in 1781. Around 1900, it served as a center for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway
During the Soviet industrialization of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced a fast growth. Several industrial establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk—still essentially a small city. Several enormous facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk, which became known as "Tankograd" (Tank City). Chelyabinsk was built essentially from scratch at this time. A small town existed before this, signs of which can be found in the centre of the city. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks—it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.
A serious nuclear accident in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, caused deaths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but not in the city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992.
The city is located in the nort-western side of its Oblast, 210 km south of Yekaterinburg
There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The main ones are South Ural State University
, Chelyabinsk State University
and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy
. The oldest one is Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University
, which was founded in 1934. There are 13 faculties at the University including the Faculty of Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physics, and others.
Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial
centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy
and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate
(CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant
(CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ) and the Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant
Chelyabinsk also has several electronics plants, including Metran, Polet and Zavod Electromashina, that serve both military and civil needs.
Chelyabinsk started construction of a 3-line subway network in 1993. It is proceeding slowly using the New Austrian Tunneling method
. Pending financing, the opening of the first section is scheduled for 2010.
The city is served by Chelyabinsk Balandino Airport
Famous people from Chelyabinsk
- Viktor Khristenko - politician, the Industry and Energy Minister since March 9, 2004. Prior to that, held a number of government posts, including a brief stint in 2004 as an acting Prime Minister (from February, 24 to March, 5)
- Nelly Rokita - adviser of Polish President Lech Kaczyński, wife of politician Jan Rokita
- Maksim Bugrov - World champion violinist 2005, Actor, Professional theater tech.
- Sergei Makarov — former Traktor Chelyabinsk, CSKA Moscow, Soviet national team, Calgary Flames, San Jose Sharks, and Dallas Stars hockey player. One of the greatest players in the history of international hockey, "M" in the famous KLM line of the late 1970s — early 1980s (together with Igor Larionov and Vladimir Krutov)
- Sergei Babinov and Sergei Starikov — 2 former USSR national team defencemen.
- Vyacheslav (Slava) Bykov - former Traktor Chelyabinsk, CSKA Moscow and Soviet national team hockey player. Since August 10, 2006 - head coach of the Russian national hockey team
- Dmitri Kalinin — New York Rangers and former Buffalo Sabres ice hockey Player
- Sergei Gonchar — Pittsburgh Penguins ice hockey Player
- Andrei Nazarov — former Minnesota Wild, San Jose Sharks, Tampa Bay Lightning, Calgary Flames, Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, Boston Bruins and Phoenix Coyotes player of the National Hockey League. Currently employed as the head coach of Traktor Chelyabinsk
- Evgeny Davydov — retired Russian professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League for the Winnipeg Jets, Florida Panthers and the Ottawa Senators