Charles

Charles

[chahrlz; for 2 also Fr. sharl]
Eames, Charles, 1907-78, American designer, b. St. Louis, Mo. He opened his own architectural practice in 1930 and in the late 30s studied with Eliel Saarinen at the Cranbrook Academy, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., later teaching there, and becoming head of the design department. In 1941 he married Cranbrook colleague Ray Kaiser Eames, 1912-88, b. Sacramento, Calif., and they settled in S California. Together they created some of 20th-century America's most influential designs for furniture, interiors, fabrics, toys, and other consumer goods, most manufactured with mass-production techniques. Most famous is the stackable "Eames chair," with its molded-plywood back and seat and stainless steel legs. In 1949 they designed their now iconic Pacific Palisades home. They also worked in photography and film, making dozens of short films, e.g., Powers of Ten (1977), and designed numerous museum exhibitions.

See M. and J. Neuhart and R. Eames, Eames Design (1989); P. Kirkham, Charles and Ray Eames: Designers of the Twentieth Century (1995); D. Albrecht, ed., The Work of Charles and Ray Eames (1997); J. Barkley, Eames House (2001); E. Demetrios, An Eames Primer (2002).

Bukowski, Charles, 1920-94, American underground poet and fiction writer, b. Andernach, Germany. His family immigrated to the United States in 1922, settling in Los Angeles. A hard-drinking unskilled worker and sometime denizen of skid row, Bukowski published his first short stories in the 1940s and earliest book of poetry in 1959. Ferociously bleak in their portrayal of life in general and Los Angeles in particular, his usually self-referential, often angry poetry and prose typically depicts alcoholics, drug addicts, criminals, prostitutes, and other outcasts. During the 1960s he became an outsider hero, lauded by Sartre, Genet, and other literary celebrities. Many of Bukowski's "dirty realist" works feature as protagonist his alter ego, the womanizing tough-guy Henry Chinaski; they include the novels Post Office (1971) and Ham on Rye (1982). He wrote more than 40 volumes of poetry (some published posthumously), six novels, and several short-story collections as well as the screenplay for the semiautobiographical film Barfly (1987).

See his The Pleasures of the Damned: Poems, 1951-1993 (2007); his selected letters (3 vol., 1993-99); D. Weitzmann, Drinking with Bukowski: Recollections of the Poet Laureate of Skid Row (2000); biographies by N. Cherkovski (rev. ed. 1997), H. Sounes (1999), M. G. Baughan (2004), and B. Miles (2006); studies by H. Fox (1968), J. Sherman (1982), R. Harrison (1994), G. Locklin (1995), J. J. Smith, ed. (1995), G. Brewer and F. Day, ed. (1997), J. Christy (1997), J. Thomas (1997), and B. Pleasants (2004); bibliography by A. Krumhansi (1999).

Cressent, Charles, 1685-1768, French cabinetmaker, one of the chief creators of the régence style. Although at first a sculptor and bronze craftsman, he studied under the furniture designer Boulle and became official cabinetmaker to the regent Philippe II, duc d'Orléans. Examples of his furniture display a strong and majestic beauty, with subtly curving supports and swelling surfaces. Against their veneers of mahogany and ebony stand lavish relief adornments in superbly modeled gilt bronze—the scrolls, shells, female busts, and dragons typical of régence decoration. Pieces by Cressent are in the Louvre and in the Wallace Collection, London.
Crocker, Charles, 1822-88, American railroad builder, b. Troy, N.Y. In 1836 he moved with his family to Marshall co., Ind., where he later set up a small foundry. He joined a party to seek gold in California in 1849. He and a brother opened (1852) a store to sell supplies to miners, and as it prospered they started others, later consolidating them in Sacramento. There Crocker met Mark Hopkins, Hopkins's partner, Collis P. Huntington, and Leland Stanford, and with them he organized (1861) the Central Pacific RR Company of California. Crocker undertook responsibility for actual construction, completing it in 1869. In 1871, Crocker sold out his interest to his partners, but in the Panic of 1873 he returned as director and vice president.
Le Brun, Charles, 1619-90, French painter, decorator, and architect. He studied with Vouet and in Rome. Strongly influenced by Poussin, he returned in 1646 to Paris, where he gradually developed a more decorative form of classicism. He decorated the Hôtel Lambert and worked at Vaux-le-Vicomte with the architect Le Vau. His first royal commission (1661), the painting The Family of Darius before Alexander, established his favor with Louis XIV. With the support of Colbert, he became painter to the king in 1662. Le Brun controlled artistic production and theory in France for more than two decades. Appointed head of the Gobelins works in 1663, he was responsible for the design of royal furnishings. He supervised the work of a large corps of painters, sculptors, engravers, weavers, and other decorators. He was also director of the Académie royale, through which office he set the standard for the Grand Manner and imposed a stringent discipline upon artistic expression. Among his numerous achievements are the decorations at Versailles. In collaboration with J. H. Mansart, he designed several rooms there, including the Galerie des Glaces. Though not a highly original artist, Le Brun was a skilled administrator and was able to create an atmosphere of richness and splendor consonant with the age of Louis XIV.
Lee, Charles, 1731-82, American Revolutionary army officer, b. Cheshire, England. He first came to America to serve in the French and Indian War and took part in General Braddock's disastrous campaign (1755), in the unsuccessful campaign against Ticonderoga (1758), and in the capture of Montreal (1760). His duties as a British officer later took him to Portugal under Gen. John Burgoyne (1762) and to Poland. In 1773 he went to Virginia to live and became a supporter of colonial independence. At the start of the American Revolution his military experience won him a commission as major general in the Continental army. After directing the fortification of New York City early in 1776, he went to Charleston, S.C., and received credit for the successful defense of that city, despite his having advised William Moultrie to abandon the fort that saved the city. Returning to New York, he repeatedly disregarded General Washington's command to cross the Hudson River in the retreat after the battle of White Plains, in the hope that he could win a personal success and replace Washington as commander in chief. When he did cross he was captured (Dec. 13, 1776) by the British at Basking Ridge, N.J. As a captive he gave Gen. William Howe a plan for defeating the Americans, but his treason was not discovered. Lee was exchanged and joined Washington at Valley Forge (1778). At the battle of Monmouth (1778) he ordered a retreat of his forces and thus prevented an American victory. The rout was stemmed only by Washington, Baron von Steuben, and Nathanael Greene. A court-martial resulted in a year's suspension from command for Lee, who continued to criticize Washington abusively. In 1780 he was finally dismissed from service. His papers have been published by the New-York Historical Society (1872-75).

See biographies by J. R. Alden (1951) and S. W. Patterson (1958).

Pinckney, Charles, 1757-1824, American statesman, governor of South Carolina (1789-92, 1796-98, 1806-8), b. Charleston, S.C.; cousin of Charles C. Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney. He fought in the American Revolution and was taken prisoner in the British capture of Charleston (1780). A delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, he submitted a plan for the Constitution. Although its exact provisions are not known, his plan had considerable influence on the final draft of the Constitution. In 1798 he became a U.S. Senator, and his services in forwarding Thomas Jefferson's presidential candidacy were rewarded by his appointment (1801) as minister to Spain. His principal assignment was to secure, with James Monroe's help, the cession of Florida to the United States. The attempt failed, and Pinckney returned home in 1805. From 1819 to 1821 he was a member of the House of Representatives, where he made a celebrated speech against the Missouri Compromise.

See G. C. Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys (1969).

Pratt, Charles, 1st Earl Camden, 1714-94, British jurist. Appointed (1761) chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, he earned wide popularity as a result of his ruling in Entick v. Carrington (1763), where he pronounced against the legality of the general warrant under which John Wilkes was prosecuted. He became lord chancellor in 1766, but his constant denunciation of the government's policy toward the American colonists and opposition to the taxes imposed on them resulted in his dismissal (1770). He served as president of the council under the marquess of Rockingham (1782-83) and under William Pitt (1784-94). In 1786 he was created Earl Camden. His lifelong fight against the existing definition of libel culminated in the passage of Fox's Libel Act of 1792 (see press, freedom of the). Camden's son, John Jeffreys Pratt, 2d Earl and 1st Marquess Camden, 1759-1840, was lord lieutenant of Ireland (1794-98). His repressive policies there were a major factor in the outbreak of the 1798 revolution. He later served as secretary of war (1804-5) and president of the council (1805-6 and 1807-12). He was created marquess in 1812.
Booth, Charles, 1840-1916, English social investigator, pioneer in developing the social survey method. Aided by the notable social scientist Beatrice Potter Webb, he made an exhaustive statistical study of poverty in London, showing its extent, causes, and location. This was published as Life and Labour of the People in London (17 vol., 1891-1903). Booth was also active in reform groups interested in the poor and aged. His other writings include Old Age Pensions and the Aged Poor (1899) and Industrial Unrest and Trade Union Policy (1914).

See his selected writings (1967); study by T. Simey and M. Simey (1960).

Borromeo, Charles: see Charles Borromeo, Saint.
Bourbon, Charles, duc de, 1490-1527, constable of France and governor of Milan. He distinguished himself at the battle of Marignano (1515) in the Italian Wars between King Francis I and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Enmity, encouraged by the queen mother, Louise of Savoy, arose between King Francis I and the duke, who went over to the emperor, after long negotiations, in 1523. His estates were confiscated. He fought against the French in Italy, notably at the battle of Pavia (1525), and was killed in an attack on Rome, which was sacked by his unpaid, mutinous troops.

See biography by C. Hare (1911).

Boyle, Charles, 4th earl of Orrery: see Orrery, Charles Boyle, 4th earl of.
Laughton, Charles, 1899-1962, Anglo-American actor, b. Scarborough, England. A large, versatile character actor, Laughton was successful both in films and on the stage. In The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), his lusty portrait of the king, for which he won the Academy Award, was startlingly direct. Other notable roles include Ruggles of Red Gap (1935), Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), and Advise and Consent (1962). He directed one film, The Night of the Hunter (1955), a forceful allegory of good and evil. In 1951 he directed and starred in a dramatic reading of Shaw's Don Juan in Hell.

See biography by his wife, Elsa Lanchester (1938); S. Callow, Charles Laughton: A Difficult Actor (1987, repr. 1997).

Lawrence, Charles, 1709-60, governor of Nova Scotia, b. England. A soldier, he accompanied his regiment to Nova Scotia in 1747 and later became lieutenant governor (1754-56) and governor (1756-60) of the province. It was mainly by his orders as governor that the Acadians were deported (see Acadia). It was in his regime, but not with his approval, that the first elected assembly of Nova Scotia met (1758); it is the oldest representative body in Canada. He attained (1757) the rank of brigadier general and commanded (1759) a brigade at the siege of Louisburg.
Olson, Charles, 1910-70, American critic and poet, b. Worcester, Mass., grad. Harvard (B.A., 1932; M.A., 1933). His literary reputation was established with Call Me Ishmael (1947), a study of the influence of Shakespeare and other writers on Melville's Moby-Dick. Later he became noted as a poet. Olson wrote what he called "projective" (open) verse, which he believed transmitted energy from the past to the reader. His works include The Maximus Poems (1960 and 1968), Casual Mythology (1969), and Poetry and Truth (1971).
Pichegru, Charles, 1761-1804, French general in the French Revolutionary Wars. Successful on the Rhine front (1793), he invaded (1794) the Netherlands, entered (1795) Amsterdam and captured the Dutch fleet, which had frozen in the ice. In the same year, however, he secretly negotiated with the Austrians in an attempt to restore the monarchy, to which his own fortune was tied. Pichegru deliberately allowed the Austrians to retake Mannheim. Recalled by the Directory, he was relieved of his command. A deputy to the Council of Five Hundred (1797), Pichegru was elected its president by the royalist majority. He was later arrested in the coup of 18 Fructidor (1797), but he escaped to England. He returned to France in 1803 to carry out a royalist conspiracy with Georges Cadoudal. Pichegru was arrested but was found strangled in his cell before the trial.
Hodge, Charles, 1797-1878, American Calvinist theologian, b. Philadelphia. He was associated with Princeton Theological Seminary, where, after graduation, he taught first Oriental and biblical literature and later theology for 58 years. His chief work is his Systematic Theology (3 vol., 1872-73). He also wrote The Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (2 vol., 1839-40), Discussions of Church Polity (1878), and several widely used volumes of commentaries. He contributed the equivalent of many volumes to the Princeton Review, which he founded and edited for over 40 years. His biography was written (1880, repr. 1969) by his son Archibald Alexander Hodge, 1823-86, who succeeded to his place at the seminary.
Chaillé-Long, Charles, 1842-1917, American soldier, African explorer, and writer, b. Princess Anne, Md. After serving in the Civil War, he was commissioned (1869) in the Egyptian army under Gen. C. G. Gordon. Chaillé-Long explored the Victoria Nile and was awarded a medal by the American Geographical Society. In 1875 he crossed the Congo-Nile divide to the Bahr al Ghazal region. He returned to the United States, graduated from Columbia Law School, and became (1887-89) consul general and secretary to the legation in Korea. His travel narratives in English include The Three Prophets (1884), My Life in Four Continents (1912), and Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People (1876). Among his writings in French are Les Sources du Nil (1891), L'Égypte et ses provinces perdues (1892), and La Corée ou Tschösen (1894).
Despiau, Charles, 1874-1946, French sculptor. He studied at the École des Arts décoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and worked in Rodin's studio (1907-14). His well-constructed, quiescent forms of young women have often been compared with the works of Maillol. Despiau is known for his sensitive portrait busts; his Mme Derain (1922) is in the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Dibdin, Charles, 1745-1814, English songwriter and theatrical entrepreneur. His best-known songs are from his ballad operas, such as The Bells of Aberdovey from Liberty Hall (1785) and To Bachelors' Hall and Tom Bowling from The Oddities (1789).
Dickens, Charles, 1812-70, English author, b. Portsmouth, one of the world's most popular, prolific, and skilled novelists.

Early Life and Works

The son of a naval clerk, Dickens spent his early childhood in London and in Chatham. When he was 12 his father was imprisoned for debt, and Charles was compelled to work in a blacking warehouse. He never forgot this double humiliation. At 17 he was a court stenographer, and later he was an expert parliamentary reporter for the Morning Chronicle. His sketches, mostly of London life (signed Boz), began appearing in periodicals in 1833, and the collection Sketches by Boz (1836) was a success.

Soon Dickens was commissioned to write burlesque sporting sketches; the result was The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1836-37), which promptly made Dickens and his characters, especially Sam Weller and Mr. Pickwick, famous. In 1836 he married Catherine Hogarth, who was to bear him 10 children; the marriage, however, was never happy. Dickens had a tender regard for Catherine's sister Mary Hogarth, who died young, and a lifelong friendship with another sister, Georgina Hogarth.

Maturity

The early-won fame never deserted Dickens. His readers were eager and ever more numerous, and Dickens worked vigorously for them, producing novels that appeared first in monthly installments and then were made into books. Oliver Twist (in book form, 1838) was followed by Nicholas Nickleby (1839) and by two works originally intended to start a series called Master Humphrey's Clock: The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) and Barnaby Rudge (1841).

Dickens wrote rapidly, sometimes working on more than one novel at a time, and usually finished an installment just when it was due. Haste did not prevent his loosely strung and intricately plotted books from being the most popular novels of his day. When he visited America in 1842, he was received with ovations but awakened some displeasure by his remarks on copyright protection and his approval of the abolition of slavery. He replied with sharp criticism of America in American Notes (1842) and the novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1843). The first of his Christmas books was the well-loved A Christmas Carol (1843). In later years other short novels and stories written for the season followed, notably The Chimes and The Cricket on the Hearth.

Dickens lived in Italy in 1844 and in Switzerland in 1846. Dombey and Son (1848) was the first in a string of triumphant novels including David Copperfield (1850), his own favorite novel, which was partly autobiographical; Bleak House (1853); Hard Times (1854); Little Dorrit (1857); A Tale of Two Cities (1859); Great Expectations (1861); and Our Mutual Friend (1865). In 1856 he bought his long-desired country home at Gadshill. Two years later, because of Dickens's attentions to a young actress, Ellen Ternan, his wife ended their marriage by formal separation. Her sister Georgina remained with Dickens to care for his household and the younger children.

Dickens was working furiously, editing and contributing to the magazines Household Words (1850-59) and All the Year Round (1858-70) and managing amateur theatricals. To these labors he added platform readings from his own works; three tours in the British Isles (1858, 1861-65, 1866-67) were followed by one in America (1867-68). When he undertook another English tour of readings (1869-70), his health broke, and he died soon afterward, leaving his last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, unfinished. His grave is in Westminster Abbey.

Dickens's Genius

Charles Dickens is one of the giants of English literature. He wrote from his own experience a great deal—the Marshalsea prison dominates Little Dorrit, and his father was at least partially the model for Mr. Micawber in David Copperfield. Although he was expert at journalistic reporting, he wrote nothing that was not transformed from actuality by his imagination. Sharp depiction of the eccentricities and characteristic traits of people was stretched into caricature, and for generations of readers the names of his characters—Mr. Pickwick, Uriah Heep, Miss Havisham, Ebenezer Scrooge—have been household words.

His enormous warmth of feeling sometimes spilled into sentimental pathos, sometimes flowed as pure tragedy. Dickens was particularly successful at evoking the sights, sounds, and smells of London, and the customs of his day. He attacked the injustices of the law and social hypocrisy and evils, but after many of the ills he pictured had been cured he gained still more readers. Some critics complain of his disorderliness in structure and of his sentimentality, but none has attempted to deny his genius at revealing the very pulse of life.

Bibliography

See his letters ed. by M. House et al. (12 vol., 1965-2002). The old standard biography of Dickens is by his friend John Forster (3 vol., 1872-74; new ed. 1928, repr. 1966). See also biographies by P. Collins (1987), F. Kaplan (1988), P. Ackroyd (1990), and M. Slater (2009); studies by M. Engel (1959), I. Brown (1964 and 1970), A. Wilson (1970), A. E. Dyson (1971), J. Carey (1974), E. Johnson, (1986), and J. Smiley (2002); P. Collins, ed., Dickens: The Critical Heritage (1971); P. Hobsbaum, A Reader's Guide to Charles Dickens (1973); M. and M. Hardwick, The Charles Dickens Encyclopedia (1973); N. Page, A Dickens Companion (1987); P. Ackroyd, Dickens' London (1988).

Sumner, Charles, 1811-74, U.S. senator from Massachusetts (1851-74), b. Boston. He attended (1831-33) and was later a lecturer at Harvard law school, was admitted (1834) to the bar, and practiced in Boston. He spent the years 1837 to 1840 in Europe. Later he became involved in several reform movements, including antislavery, and in 1851 a combination of Free-Soilers and Democrats sent him to the Senate. An aggressive abolitionist, Sumner attacked the fugitive slave laws, denounced the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, and on May 19-20, 1856, delivered his notable antislavery speech called "The Crime against Kansas." A master of invective, he singled out as his special victim Senator Andrew Pickens Butler of South Carolina, who was not there to reply. Two days later he was assaulted in the Senate chamber by Preston S. Brooks, Butler's nephew. It took Sumner more than three years to recover from the attack, but Massachusetts reelected him, and he resumed his seat in Dec., 1859. He had been important in organizing the new Republican party and in 1861 was made chairman of the Senate foreign relations committee. In the Trent Affair he favored the release of the captured Confederate commissioners. Sumner highly approved Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; indeed he had been impatient at the long delay. Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House led the radical Republicans in their Reconstruction program for the South. He held that the Southern states had "committed suicide" by their secession and thus had lost any rights under the Constitution. Reconstruction he considered the function of Congress alone and he was most active in trying to secure the conviction of President Andrew Johnson on the impeachment charges. During the administration of Ulysses S. Grant, Sumner's excessive demands regarding Civil War claims against Great Britain hampered the administration's negotiations with that country. His relationship with Grant deteriorated further when Sumner denounced Grant's questionable scheme to annex Santo Domingo; this led to his removal (Mar., 1871) from the chairmanship of the committee on foreign relations. Humiliated, Sumner helped organize (1872) the short-lived Liberal Republican party. Sumner wrote and spoke widely, and there are two editions of his works (15 vol., 1870-83; 20 vol., 1900).

See E. L. Pierce, Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner (4 vol., 1877-93); D. H. Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (1960, repr. 1970) and Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970).

Warren, Charles, 1868-1954, American lawyer and historian, b. Boston. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1892. An assistant U.S. Attorney General (1914-18), he served as a special master in important cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. He drafted the Espionage Act (1917), which was used to censor and imprison radicals. Warren is noted for his scholarly studies of constitutional history, especially The Supreme Court in United States History (3 vol., 1922; rev. ed., 2 vol., 1926, repr. 1960), which won the Pulitzer Prize. He also wrote Congress, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court (1925, repr. 1969) and The Making of the Constitution (1928, repr. 1967).
Frohman, Charles, 1860-1915, American theatrical manager and producer, b. Sandusky, Ohio. Starting his career as a box-office clerk in Brooklyn, N.Y., Frohman became a successful producer with Bronson Howard's Shenandoah (1889). In 1893 he organized the Empire Theatre Stock Company. Soon he acquired five other New York City theaters and later headed the Theatrical Syndicate. He was known for his ability to develop talent; his stars included John Drew, Ethel Barrymore, E. H. Sothern, Julia Marlowe, Maude Adams, and Henry Miller. In 1897 he leased the Duke of York's Theatre, London, introducing plays there as well as in the United States. Clyde Fitch, J. M. Barrie, and Edmond Rostand were among the playwrights he promoted. The system of exchange of successful plays between London and New York was largely a result of his efforts. He was known as an exceptionally fair man whose word was his only contract. Frohman died at sea on the Lusitania.
Sangster, Charles, 1822-93, Canadian poet, b. Ontario. At first an imitator of Byron, he became, with the publication of Hesperus and Other Poems and Lyrics (1860), the first notable Canadian poet to make use of native themes and settings.

See biography by W. D. Hamilton (1971).

Gwathmey, Charles: see under Gwathmey, Robert.
Albanel, Charles, 1616-96, French missionary explorer in Canada, a Jesuit priest. After arriving in Canada (1649), he was stationed many years at Tadoussac where he explored the surrounding wilderness. At the time when the English Hudson's Bay Company was beginning operations, he was a leader of a French party that went (1671-72) by the Saguenay River, Mistassini Lake, and the Rupert River to Hudson Bay. The region was claimed for France. On another journey there he was captured (1674) by the English and taken to England. After returning (1676) to Canada, he served at missions in western Canada and died at Sault Ste Marie.
Lalemant, Charles, 1587-1674, French Jesuit missionary in North America; brother of Jérôme Lalemant and uncle of Gabriel Lalemant. He arrived in Quebec in 1625 and acted as novice master and superior. His account, the earliest of the Jesuit Relations, is valuable. He was noted as a mystic. In 1639 he returned to France, where he acted as forwarding agent for the Canadian missions.
Lamb, Charles, 1775-1834, English essayist, b. London. He went to school at Christ's Hospital, where his lifelong friendship with Coleridge began. Lamb was a clerk at the India House from 1792 to 1825. In 1796 his sister Mary Ann Lamb (1764-1847) in a fit of temporary insanity attacked and wounded their father and stabbed and killed their mother. Lamb had himself declared her guardian to save her from permanent commitment to an asylum, and after 1799 they lived together. Mary was an intelligent and affectionate companion, but the shadow of her madness continued to plague their lives. They collaborated on several books for children, publishing in 1807 their famous Tales from Shakespeare. Lamb wrote four plays, none of which were successful. However, his dramatic essays, Specimens of English Dramatic Poets (1808), established his reputation as a critic and did much in reviving the popularity of Elizabethan drama. From 1800 on he wrote intermittently for periodicals, the major contribution being the famous Essays of Elia (London Magazine, 1820-25), which were collected in 1823 and 1833. The essays cover a variety of subjects and maintain throughout an intimate and familiar tone. Lamb's style is peculiarly his own. His close-knit, subtle organization, his self-revealing observations on life, and his humor, fantasy, and pathos combine to make him one of the great masters of the English essay. Lamb was a gifted conversationalist and was friendly with most of the major literary figures of his time.

See his Life, Letters and Writings, ed. by P. Fitzgerald (1895, repr. 1971); E. W. Marrs, Jr., ed., The Letters of Charles and Mary Anne Lamb (3 vol., 1975-78); biographies by A. Ainger (1901, repr. 1970), E. V. Lucas (1968), D. Cecil (1984), and B. Cornwall (2003); biography of Mary Anne Lamb by S. T. Hitchcock (2004); studies by E. Blunden (1954; 1933, repr. 1967), J. E. Riehl (1980), and G. Monsman (1984 and 2003).

Reade, Charles, 1814-84, English novelist and dramatist. He is noted for his historical romance The Cloister and the Hearth. After being elected a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, he was called to the bar. His interests, however, soon turned to the theater. He achieved his first success with Masks and Faces (1852), written in collaboration with Tom Taylor. The play, concerned with life in the theater, was used as the basis for his first novel, Peg Woffington (1853). An ardent reformer, he began a long series of propagandist novels with It's Never Too Late to Mend (1856), describing the cruelties of prison discipline. Others in the series included Hard Cash (1863), and Put Yourself in His Place (1870). He also wrote the novels Griffith Grant (1866), Foul Play (1869), and A Terrible Temptation (1871). His masterpiece, The Cloister and the Hearth (1861), is a picaresque novel concerning the adventures of Gerard, the father of Erasmus. In 1879 Reade collaborated with Charles Warner in writing Drink, a dramatization of Zola's L'Assommoir.

See biography by M. Elwin (1931); study by W. Burns (1961).

Foster, Charles, 1828-1904, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (1891-93), b. Seneca co., Ohio. He was long identified with the business interests of Fostoria, Ohio—named for C. W. Foster, his father. A Republican, he served (1871-79) in the U.S. House of Representatives and as a member of the Committee on Ways and Means aided in exposing (1874) fraudulent contracts in connection with the U.S. Treasury Dept. He was twice (1879, 1881) elected governor of Ohio. On the death of William Windom, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Foster, a declared bimetallist, to the Treasury post.
Foucauld, Charles, vicomte de, 1858-1916, French priest and missionary in the Sahara. After a career as an army officer and an explorer in Algeria and Morocco, he entered a Trappist monastery in 1890. In 1901 he was ordained and volunteered to go to the Sahara under the patronage of the White Fathers (the Society of Missionaries of Africa). In 1905 he went to Algeria and lived among the Tuareg. He settled near the small village of Tamanrasset, where he produced his studies of Tuareg language and literature. He was killed when the desert tribes revolted against France. Foucauld is revered for the sincerity of his vocation.

See his Spiritual Autobiography, ed. and annotated by J. F. Six (tr. 1964); biography by M. L. Trouncer (1972).

Fourier, Charles, 1772-1837, French social philosopher. From a bourgeois family, he condemned existing institutions and evolved a kind of utopian socialism. In Théorie des quatre mouvements (1808) and later works he developed his idea that the natural passions of man would, if properly channeled, result in social harmony. To achieve this goal, many of the artificial restraints of civilization were to be destroyed. The social organization for such development was to be based on the "phalanx," an economic unit composed of 1,620 people. Members would live in the phalanstère (or phalanstery), a community building, and work would be divided among people according to their natural inclinations. Fourier was not ready to discard capitalism completely; basically his ideal was an agricultural society, systematically arranged. His writings anticipated the 20th-century social problems resulting from mechanization and industrialization. Fourierism obtained a number of converts in France, and several newspapers spread the doctrines, but followers failed to establish any lasting colony there. After Fourier's death his principal disciple, Victor Prosper Considérant, tried to found a colony in Texas. Albert Brisbane and Horace Greeley were the principal figures in the sudden and wide development of colonies in the United States. Brook Farm was for a time Fourierist. The most successful of the communities was the North American Phalanx at Red Bank, N.J.

See studies by N. V. Riasanovsky (1969), D. Zeldin (1969), and J. F. Beecher (1987).

Pathé, Charles, 1873-1957, French photographer. He was the first to present (c.1909) the newsreel as a regular attraction at a theater in Paris. In 1910 he introduced the newsreel to the United States; thereafter the Pathé News Reel became an international product.
Péguy, Charles, 1873-1914, French poet and writer. Of a poor, working family, he won scholarships and made a brilliant record as a student. He left the École normale supérieure to devote himself to the cause of socialism. He was, however, individual in his views, and he broke with the socialist party. In 1900 he founded the Cahiers de la quinzaine, a periodical in which he published his own works and those of other young writers. Through his life he worked passionately for justice, truth, and the good of the common person and the world. He was the outstanding Roman Catholic supporter of Dreyfus in the Dreyfus Affair, and his polemics against injustice were fiery. Though formally he was often at odds with the church, he is among the foremost modern Catholic writers. He sought to infuse spirituality into every aspect of life. His great poem Le Mystère de la charité de Jeanne d'Arc (1910, tr. by Julian Green 1950) expresses his ideal of the spiritual in action. His repetitive chantlike verse has great power. Others of his long works are Le Porche du mystère de la deuxième vertu (1911) and Eve (1913). He was killed at the battle of the Marne in World War I. Translations of his works appear in Basic Verities (1943) and Men and Saints (1944), both translated by Ann and Julian Green; Julian Green also translated some of Péguy's religious poetry in God Speaks (1945).

See studies by M. Villiers (1965), N. Jussem-Wilson (1965), H. A. Schmitt (1967), and G. Hill (1984).

Fleetwood, Charles, 1618?-1692, English parliamentary general. He fought under Oliver Cromwell in many battles of the English civil war and later (1650) in Scotland. He became (1651) a member of the council of state and married (1652) Bridget, daughter of Cromwell and widow of Henry Ireton. He succeeded Ireton as commander in chief in Ireland (1652-55) and continued Ireton's work in directing the settlement of English soldiers on lands confiscated from Irish landholders. As ranking military officer under Richard Cromwell, he led (1659) the army coup that forced the protector to dissolve Parliament. At the Restoration (1660) he was barred from holding further public office.
Simic, Charles, 1938-, American poet, b. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Simic moved to the United States in 1954, joining his father, who had arrived before World War II. Simic studied at New York Univ. (B.A., 1966) and taught at several colleges, most notably from 1974 at the Univ. of New Hampshire, where he is now a professor emeritus. Simic has written more than 60 books, including the poetry collections What the Grass Says (1960), Charon's Cosmology (1977), Unending Blues (1986), The World Doesn't End (1990, Pulitzer Prize), Walking the Black Cat (1996), Jackstraws (1999), The Voice at 3:00 AM (2003), My Noiseless Entourage (2005), and That Little Something (2008). His poetry is stark and startlingly original, with touches of ironic humor; his language is plainspoken and accessible, although his imagery is often dark and sometimes bizarre. He also is celebrated for his translations of Yugoslav and French poets and has written many essays and edited several anthologies. A former MacArthur fellow (1984-89), Simic was named U.S. poet laureate in 2007.

See his collected memoirs, A Fly in the Soup (2003); M. Hulse, Charles Simic in Conversation with Michael Hulse (2002); B. Weigl, ed., Charles Simic: Essays on the Poetry (1996).

Evans, Charles, 1850-1935, American librarian and bibliographer, b. Boston. He organized many major American libraries including the Indianapolis public library, the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, and the Omaha public library. He also classified the Newberry Library in Chicago. An authority on American literature, Evans published American Bibliography (1903-55), a chronological directory of all material published in the United States from 1639 to 1820.
Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Annapolis, Md. After completing his education in France and England, he returned home (1765) and his father gave him a large estate near Frederick, Md., known as Carrollton Manor; he was afterward styled Charles Carroll of Carrollton. As leader of the Roman Catholic element, he opposed support of the established Anglican Church, presenting his views in a series of articles written for the Maryland Gazette. He threw himself boldly into revolutionary activities, and in 1776 the Continental Congress appointed him, together with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase, to seek Canadian support for the Continental cause. His journal is one of the chief sources for study of this unsuccessful mission. Carroll served (1776-78) in the Continental Congress; he refused to attend the Federal Constitutional Convention (1787), but he later supported the Constitution. He was (1789-92) U.S. Senator from Maryland.

See biographies by K. M. Rowland (1898, repr. 1968), J. Gurn (1932), and E. H. Smith (1942, repr. 1971).

Sackville, Charles, 6th earl of Dorset, 1638-1706, English poet and courtier. After the restoration, he became a member of the intimate circle of young rakes and wits at the court of Charles II, writing epigrams, caustic satires, and songs, of which the best known is the ballad "To All You Ladies Now at Land." In 1652 he was given the courtesy title Lord Buckhurst.
Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-67, French poet and critic. His poetry, classical in form, introduced symbolism (see symbolists) by establishing symbolic correspondences among sensory images (e.g., colors, sounds, scents). The only volume of his poems published in his lifetime, Les Fleurs du mal (1857, enlarged 1861, 1868; several Eng. tr., The Flowers of Evil), was publicly condemned as obscene, and six of the poems were suppressed. Later recognized as a masterpiece, the volume is especially remarkable for the brilliant phrasing, rhythm, and expressiveness of its lyrics. Baudelaire's erratic personality was marked by moodiness, rebelliousness, and an intense religious mysticism. His life was burdened with debts, misunderstanding, illness, and excesses, and his work unremittingly reflects inner despair. The main theme is the inseparable nature of beauty and corruption. A collection of poetic prose pieces was published posthumously as Petits poèmes en prose (1869). As poet and critic Baudelaire earned distinction in literary circles. Believing criticism to be a function of the poet, he wrote perceptive appraisals of his contemporaries. His criticism was collected posthumously in Curiosités esthétiques (1868) and L'Art romantique (1869). He felt a great affinity to Poe, whose works he translated and brought to the attention of the French public. One of the great figures of French literature, Baudelaire has also been a major influence in other Western poetry.

See his letters (tr. by S. Morini and F. Tuten, 1970), his intimate journal (tr. by C. Isherwood, 1947), and selected letters (tr. and ed. by L. B. and F. E. Hyslop, 1957); biography by E. Starkie (rev. ed. 1958), studies by J.-P. Sartre (1950, repr. 1972) and M. A. Ruff (1965).

Scribner, Charles, 1821-71, American publisher, b. New York City. He founded in 1846 the publishing house that in 1878 became Charles Scribner's Sons and in 1870 he began Scribner's Monthly, which in 1881 became the Century Magazine. His son, Charles Scribner, 1854-1930, became head of the firm in 1879 and founded Scribner's Magazine, a literary periodical, in 1887. He was the donor of the Princeton Univ. Press building.
Bent, Charles, 1799-1847, American frontiersman, b. St. Louis. He entered the fur trade of the Missouri River and became one of the mountain men. His interests turned to the Southwest, and he led expeditions on the Santa Fe Trail. Charles Bent was the senior partner of a trading firm that included Ceran St. Vrain as well as William Bent and others of the seven Bent brothers. The company was one of the most prominent on the frontier, and Bent's Fort was one of the most famous American trading posts. Because of his high standing, Charles Bent was chosen as governor of New Mexico after the American occupation in the Mexican War. He was murdered at Taos in an uprising of Native Americans and Mexicans.
Bonnet, Charles, 1720-93, Swiss naturalist and philosopher. He drew attention to parthenogenesis in aphids, but his theories were highly fanciful and unscientific. His books include Traité d'insectologie (1745) and Contemplation de la nature (1764-65).
Frankel, Charles, 1917-79, American philosopher, b. New York City, grad. Columbia 1937, Ph.D., 1946. A teacher at Columbia since 1939, he became Old Dominion professor of philosophy and public affairs in 1970. His extensive writings are on social philosophy, the philosophy of history, and value theory, as well as on education and religion. His emphasis, like that of John Dewey, was on practical philosophy rather than metaphysical speculation. Between 1965 and 1967, Frankel was assistant secretary of state for educational and cultural affairs. His works include The Faith of Reason (1948); The Case for Modern Man (1956, rev. ed. 1959); The Democratic Prospect (1962); and Pleasures of Philosophy (1972).
Tilly, Charles, 1929-, American sociologist. Educated at Harvard and Oxford, Tilly has taught at the Univ. of Michigan and the New School for Social Research. His book The Contentious French (1986) painstakingly documents people confronting the power of the nation-state and modern capitalism and examines how the growth of social structures influenced their "repertoires of collective actions." His numerous other books include From Mobilization to Revolution (1978), Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons (1985), European Revolutions, 1492-1992 (1993), Cities and the Rise of States in Europe, A.D. 1000 to 1800 (1994), and Durable Inequality (1998).
Loyson, Charles, 1827-1912, French preacher, called Père Hyacinthe. He was successively a Sulpician, a Dominican, and a Carmelite. In 1869, when he was perhaps the best-known preacher in France, he opposed the calling of the Vatican Council. He opposed enunciation of the doctrine of the infallibility of the pope, and in 1871 he left the Church. In 1878 he founded a Gallican church at Paris; this joined later (1893) with the Jansenists of Utrecht.
Lynch, Charles, 1736-96, American Revolutionary soldier, b. near the site of Lynchburg, Va. A member (1767-76) of the Virginia house of burgesses, he took a prominent part in the preparations for war. When a Tory conspiracy was discovered (1780) in Bedford co., where he had been a justice of the peace from 1774, Lynch, a zealous patriot, presided over an extralegal court that meted out summary punishment to the Loyalists. From this action is said to come the origin of the term "lynch law." Lynch clearly exceeded his authority, but he was later exonerated by the state legislature. He led a volunteer regiment at the battle of Guilford Courthouse in 1781.
Meryon, Charles, 1821-68, French etcher. His short life was saddened by poverty and neglect and complicated by recurring forms of mental aberration. Prevented by color blindness from painting, he became an etcher and evolved an incomparable technique. Reflecting the romanticism of the period, he depicted architectural settings with great structural clarity, often inserting grotesque or enigmatic figures. His fame rests largely on his poetic series of 22 etchings of old sections of Paris, Eaux-Fortes sur Paris (1850-54). Meryon died insane at 47.

See studies by L. Delteil (1928) and C. Dodgson (1931).

Gide, Charles, 1847-1932, French economist. A professor at the universities of Bordeaux, Montpellier, and Paris, Gide was an expert on international monetary problems. He also played an important part in the cooperative movement, and his Consumers' Co-operative Societies (1904; tr. from 3d French ed. 1921) is a classic in the field. His other works include Principles of Political Economy (1883; tr. from 23d ed. 1924) and, with Charles Rist, History of Economic Doctrines (1909; tr. from 2d ed. 1915).

See K. Walter, ed., Co-operation and Charles Gide (1933).

Ginner, Charles, 1878-1952, English painter. After study in Paris, Ginner settled in London, becoming a founder of the neorealist school. During both world wars he was an official government artist. Among his World War II paintings are several scenes of air raids.
Hélou, Charles, 1911-2001, Lebanese political leader. After working as a newspaper publisher, he was appointed (1947) Lebanon's representative to the Vatican. He served (1954-55) as minister of justice and health in the government of Camille Chamoun. Hélou served as Lebanon's president from 1964 to 1970.
Rémusat, Charles, comte de, 1797-1875, French philosopher and liberal politician. He was a deputy (1830-48) and minister of the interior (1840) under King Louis Philippe. In the Revolution of 1848 he was associated with Adolphe Thiers. Rémusat went into exile after the coup of Louis Napoleon (later Emperor Napoleon III), becoming politically active again when the emperor had to make concessions to the liberals toward the end of the Second Empire. After Napoleon's fall he served (1871-73) under Thiers as minister of foreign affairs. Among his works are Essais de philosophie (1842), Histoire de la philosophie en Angleterre depuis Bacon jusqu'à Locke (1875), and several biographies.
Seignobos, Charles, 1854-1942, French historian. He taught at the Univ. of Paris and wrote many works on French and European history and civilization, some being contributions to the series edited by Ernest Lavisse and Alfred Rambaud. A number of these are widely used as textbooks in France. Seignobos's most outstanding book is his Histoire politique de l'Europe contemporaine (1897). Noted for his clear and unbiased narrative, Seignobos emphasized political history rather than social and economic change.
Howard, Charles, 1st earl of Carlisle: see Carlisle, Charles Howard, 1st earl of.
Curtis, Charles, 1860-1936, Vice President of the United States (1929-33), b. near North Topeka, Kans. Of part Native American background, Curtis lived for three years on a Kaw reservation. After studying law with a Topeka attorney, he was admitted to the bar (1881) and entered Republican politics in Kansas. He served in the U.S. Congress (1892-1906), where he championed Native American rights to self-government with the Curtis Act (1898). He served in the U.S. Senate from 1907 to 1913 and from 1915 to 1929. He was a fiscal conservative and generally supported farm and veterans' benefits. After an unsuccessful bid for the Republican presidential nomination, he became Herbert Hoover's running mate in 1928. Once elected, he played little part in the administration, but in 1932 he again ran with Hoover in his unsuccessful try for a second term.

See biography by M. Ewy (1961).

de Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970, French general and statesman, first president (1959-69) of the Fifth Republic.

The World Wars

During World War I de Gaulle served with distinction until his capture in 1916. In The Army of the Future (1934, tr. 1941) he foresaw and futilely advocated for France the mechanized warfare by which Germany was to conquer France in 1940. In World War II he was promoted to brigadier general (1940) and became undersecretary of war in the cabinet of Premier Paul Reynaud.

De Gaulle opposed the Franco-German armistice and fled (June, 1940) to London, where he organized the Free French forces and rallied several French colonies to his movement. He was sentenced to death in absentia by a French military court. The Free French forces were successful in Syria, Madagascar, and N Africa. In June, 1943, de Gaulle became copresident, with Gen. Henri Honoré Giraud, of the newly formed French Committee of National Liberation at Algiers. He succeeded in forcing Giraud out of the committee, and in June, 1944, it was proclaimed the provisional government of France.

The Postwar Period

De Gaulle's government returned to Paris on Aug. 26 and was recognized by the principal Allies. He was unanimously elected provisional president of France in Nov., 1945, but he resigned in Jan., 1946, when it became obvious that his views favoring a strong executive would not be incorporated into the new constitution. Many of the rightist elements had gathered under the Gaullist banner, and he became (1947) head of a new party—Rassemblement du Peuple Français [Rally of the French People]—which claimed to speak for all Frenchmen and to be above factional strife but which, nevertheless, took part in subsequent elections. The party had some temporary electoral success, but in 1953 de Gaulle dissolved it and went into retirement.

Algeria and Internal Affairs

In 1958, after the military and civilian revolt in Algeria had created a political crisis in France, he was considered the only leader of sufficient strength and stature to deal with the situation. He became premier with power to rule by decree for six months. During this time a new constitution, which strengthened the presidency, was drawn up (1958). The constitution also provided for the French Community, the first step toward resolving imperial problems. De Gaulle was inaugurated as president of the new Fifth Republic in Jan., 1959. He decided to allow Algeria self-determination. This decision led to several revolts in Algeria by French colonists who opposed independence. Finally in 1962 an agreement was reached that provided for Algerian independence.

In domestic affairs de Gaulle attempted to restore French national finances by devaluing the franc and creating a new franc worth 100 old francs. Much of de Gaulle's program consisted of an attempt to raise France to its former world stature. He argued for French parity with the United States in NATO decisions and promoted French development of atomic weapons. In 1966, he withdrew French troops from NATO and ordered the withdrawal of NATO military installations from France by Apr., 1967.

The Final Presidency

De Gaulle was reelected to a second seven-year term in 1965. Although he rejected limitations on French sovereignty, he supported participation in the Common Market but strongly opposed British membership in it. He fostered ties with West Germany and established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. In May, 1968, student demonstrations protesting French political and educational systems were followed by huge workers' strikes that nearly toppled the Gaullist government. Nevertheless, in elections held in June, the Gaullists were returned to power. In 1969, after being defeated in a referendum on constitutional reform, de Gaulle resigned as president.

Bibliography

See De Gaulle's War Memoirs (tr., 3 vol., 1955-60; repr. 1984) and Memoirs of Hope (tr. 1972); biographies by P. Masson (1971), B. Crozier (1973), D. Cook (1984), and C. Williams (1995); A. Werth, The De Gaulle Revolution (1960), P. M. Williams and M. Harrison, De Gaulle's Republic (1960), R. Aron, An Explanation of De Gaulle (1965), J. Hess, The Case for De Gaulle (1968), A. Hartley, Gaullism (1971), P. Alexandre, The Duel: De Gaulle and Pompidou (1972), J. Lacouture, De Gaulle (2 vol., 1990-92).

Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935, American watercolor painter, b. Lancaster, Pa. At the age of 20 he began his art study under William Chase at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1907 and again in 1912, Demuth visited Europe. On returning to the United States he began a series of line-and-wash illustrations for works of Zola, Poe, and Henry James and made drawings of vaudeville performers. He is perhaps best known for his beautiful translucent flower and fruit studies in watercolor. Demuth was one of the first painters to draw inspiration from the geometric shapes of machines and modern technology. There are several works by him in the Art Institute, Chicago, and many in the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Ohio.

See biography by E. Farnham (1971) and A. L. Eiseman (1986).

Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), 1948-, prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and heir apparent to the British throne. He was created prince of Wales in 1958 and invested at Caernarvon Castle in 1969. He graduated from Cambridge in 1971 and served in the Royal Navy (1971-76).

In 1981 he married Lady Diana Frances Spencer (see Diana, princess of Wales). Their children, next in line to succeed him, are Prince William (b. 1982) and Prince Henry (b. 1984). Following the separation of Charles and Diana in 1992, the deterioration of their personal relationship became the subject of intense, sometimes lurid, media coverage. By the time of their divorce (1996) and her death (Aug., 1997) in a Paris car crash, the sympathies of the British public appeared deeply divided between Charles and Diana.

Charles has been an outspoken critic of contemporary architecture and has sought to bring Britain's architectural heritage to the attention of the nation. He wrote A Vision of Britain (1989), which became a television documentary. He is also an advocate for inner-city reform and environmental issues. In 2005 he married Camilla Parker Bowles, who had long been his mistress; she became the duchess of Cornwall.

Charles, 1771-1847, archduke of Austria; brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. Despite his epilepsy, he was the ablest Austrian commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; however, he was handicapped by unwise decisions imposed on him from Vienna. After the disastrous campaign of 1805, Charles was appointed minister of war and chief commander of the Austrian forces. He reorganized the army and headed the patriotic faction at court. In 1809 he defeated Napoleon I at Aspern (May) but was beaten at Wagram (July). In both battles he exacted a heavy toll from the French. Shortly afterward he retired because of political differences with Francis. He was also called Charles Louis.

See F. L. Petre, Napoleon and the Archduke Charles (1908).

Charles, Eugenia (Mary Eugenia Charles), 1919-2005, Dominican politician, first female prime minister of Dominica (1980-95). A lawyer, she was a founder (1968) of the Dominica Freedom party (DFP) and headed the DFP for more than 20 years. Elected to parliament in 1970, she became leader of the opposition in 1975. In 1980 she became prime minister after the DFP swept the elections, and earned a reputation as a corruption fighter. As chair of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, she supported America's 1983 invasion of Grenada. She was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire in 1991.
Charles, Jacques Alexandre César, 1746-1823, French physicist. He confirmed Benjamin Franklin's electrical experiments, became interested in aeronautics, and was the first to use hydrogen gas in balloons. In this type of balloon, known as the Charlière, he made an ascent in 1783 of almost 2 mi (3.2 km). He became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, Paris. Inventor of a thermometric hydrometer, he also improved various devices, the Gravesande heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer among others, and anticipated Gay-Lussac's law of the expansion of gases. For Charles's law, see gas laws.
Charles, Ray (Ray Charles Robinson), 1930-2004, African-American musician and composer, b. Albany, Ga. Blinded at age seven, he was raised in Florida and at 16 began singing in a local hillbilly group. Two years later he moved to Seattle, where he formed his own trio. Charles rose to fame in the 1950s singing rhythm-and-blues tunes in an exuberant yet sophisticated style to the accompaniment of his piano and band. He had his first national recorded hit, "I've Got a Woman," in 1955. Combining sacred styles with the secular and rooted in gospel music and the blues, his work infused soul into a variety of genres, and it influenced, and was influenced by, jazz and rock music. Among Charles's greatest hits were "Whad'd I Say" (1959), "Georgia on My Mind" (1960), and his soulful rendition of "America the Beautiful" (1984). An outstanding live performer, he also recorded more than 60 albums and won 12 Grammy awards. He was inducted into the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

See his autobiography (1978); biographies by D. Ritz (1978) and M. Lydon (1999).

Charles, Thomas, 1755-1814, Welsh nonconformist clergyman. He was brought up under Methodist influence, attended Oxford (1775-78), and was ordained in the Church of England. He held curacies in Somersetshire but resigned them and returned to Bala, Wales, where in 1784 he joined the Calvinistic Methodist Church. Gifted in working with children, he began (1785) to establish Welsh language schools. He secured and distributed thousands of Welsh Bibles and helped to found the British and Foreign Bible Society (see Bible societies). At Bala in 1803, Charles established a printing press for Welsh textbooks.

See W. Hughes, ed., Life and Letters of the Rev. Thomas Charles (1881).

Charles, William, 1776-1820, American cartoonist, etcher, and engraver, b. Edinburgh, Scotland. He probably came to the United States to avoid prosecution for his satirical drawings. He is best known for his cartoons of the War of 1812, in which he mocked the English in the rough, biting style of Gillray. An example of his work is Admiral Cockburn Burning and Plundering Havre-de-Grace (Maryland Historical Society).
Charles, river, c.60 mi (97 km) long, rising in E Mass. and flowing generally NE to Boston Bay; it separates Boston from Cambridge. Extensive development to the riverfront includes the Esplanade, a series of fishing sites, playgrounds, and walking paths; and the Hatch Shell, where free, open-air concerts are held by the Boston Pops Orchestra. Recreational sailing and canoeing, college rowing, and boat races are common on the river; the Charles River Regatta is held on the last Sunday in October.
Chauncy, Charles, 1705-87, American Congregational clergyman, b. Boston. He was ordained as a minister of the First Church, Boston, in 1727 and remained in that pulpit for 60 years. Next to Jonathan Edwards, his great opponent, Chauncy was probably the most influential clergyman of his time in New England. As an intellectual he distrusted emotionalism and opposed the revivalist preaching of the Great Awakening in his Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England (1743) and other pamphlets. He became the leader of the "Old Lights" or liberals in theology in the doctrinal disputes following the Great Awakening. He was also the leader in the opposition to the establishment of an Anglican bishopric in the American colonies, writing his Compleat View of Episcopacy (1771) and other works on the subject. A firm believer in the colonial cause, he clearly set forth the political philosophy of the American Revolution in sermons and pamphlets during the period. After the war he defended the doctrine of Universalism in two anonymous tracts: Salvation for All Men (1782) and The Mystery Hid from Ages and Generations (1784).

See W. Walker, Ten New England Leaders (1901, repr. 1969).

Nodier, Charles, 1780-1844, French novelist and poet. From 1824 he was librarian of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris. His salon was the nucleus of the beginning romantic movement and was frequented by such men as Hugo, Sainte-Beuve, and Dumas père. His most noted works are the fantastic tales Trilby; ou, Le Lutin d'Argail (1822) and La Fée aux miettes (1832).

See bibliography by S. F. Bell (1971); study by H. Nelson (1972).

Nordhoff, Charles, 1830-1901, American journalist and author, b. Westphalia. In 1835 he emigrated with his family to Cincinnati. His service (1844-47) in the navy, and later on whaling and fishing ships, provided literary material for his books Nine Years a Sailor (1857) and Stories of the Island World (1857). He wrote for the New York Evening Post (1858-71), part of the time as editor, and was Washington correspondent (1874-90) for the New York Herald. A leading political commentator of his day, Nordhoff was the author of such works as Communistic Societies in the United States (1875) and The Cotton States in the Spring and Summer of 1875 (1876). His grandson, Charles Bernard Nordhoff, 1887-1947, was coauthor with J. N. Hall of Mutiny on the Bounty (1932), Men Against the Sea (1933), Pitcairn's Island (1934), and other works.
Townshend, Charles, 1725-67, English statesman; grandson of the 2d Viscount Townshend. Distrusted for his marked instability, he held relatively minor offices until the 1st earl of Chatham made him chancellor of the exchequer in 1766. Because of Chatham's illness Townshend became the leading figure in the ministry. He effectively sabotaged Chatham's plan to bring India under the sovereignty of the crown and undertook the ill-fated American import levies known as the Townshend Acts. He died shortly after the passage of the measures.
Kingsley, Charles, 1819-75, English author and clergyman. Ordained in 1842, he became vicar of Eversley in Hampshire in 1844. From 1848 to 1852 he published tracts advocating Christian socialism. These views were embodied in his first two novels, Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851), both of which deal with contemporary social problems. In his subsequent novels, including Hypatia (1853), Westward Ho! (1855), and Hereward the Wake (1866), he used historical settings to communicate his ideas. A statement denigrating the Roman Catholic clergy, made by Kingsley in an article, started a controversy with John Henry Newman that resulted in Newman's famous Apologia. In 1859, Kingsley was made chaplain to Queen Victoria. From 1860 to 1869 he was professor of modern history at Cambridge and in 1873 was appointed canon of Westminster. Several collections of his sermons were published during his lifetime. Included among his other notable work is the well-known children's book The Water Babies (1863).

See Letters and Memories (ed. by his wife, 2 vol., 1877, repr. 1973); biographies by M. F. Thorp (1937, repr. 1969), U. Pope-Hennessy (1948, repr. 1973), and B. Colloms (1975); study by A. J. Hartley (1981); S. Harris, Charles Kingsley: A Reference Book (1981).

Knight, Charles, 1874-1953, American artist, b. New York City. Knight painted and sculpted animal subjects. He is best known for his murals at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. These depict scenes of prehistoric life based on information from fossil remains. His books include Before the Dawn of History (1935) and Prehistoric Man (1949).
Wordsworth, Charles: see under Wordsworth, Christopher.
Wuorinen, Charles, 1938-, American composer, conductor, and pianist, b. New York City. Wuorinen studied at Columbia Univ. (B.A., 1961; M.A., 1963) and taught there, at the Manhattan School of Music, and at Rutgers Univ. In 1962 he was one of the founders of the influential Group for Contemporary Music. Composer in residence at the San Francisco Symphony (1985-89) and a guest piano soloist and conductor with many orchestras worldwide, Wuorinen has been the recipient of many awards, including Guggenheim (1968, 1972) and MacArthur (1986-91) fellowships.

In his innovative compositions he has explored and expanded electronic music and serial music; Wuorinen explains his approach in the treatise Simple Composition (1979, repr. 1994). He has written more than 200 compositions—including works for electronic media alone and with traditional instruments—for orchestra, chamber group, ballet, opera, chorus, and soloists. Among his best known pieces are Time's Encomium (1969), an electronic piece that won him the Pulitzer Prize; Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky (1975), based on Stravinsky's last sketches; Bamboula Squared (1984), for orchestra and computer-generated sound; the Dante Trilogy (1993-96), orchestral scores written for the New York City Ballet; and the opera Haroun and the Sea of Stories (2005), adapted from the novel by Salman Rushdie.

See bio-bibliography by R. D. Burbank (1993).

Garnier, Charles (Saint Charles Garnier), 1606-49, French missionary in North America, one of the Jesuit Martyrs of North America. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1624 and went as a missionary to the Huron of Canada in 1636. He was killed by the Iroquois. Feast: Sept. 26 or (among the Jesuits) Mar. 16.
Bulfinch, Charles, 1763-1844, American architect, b. Boston. A member of the Boston board of selectmen in 1791, he was chosen chairman in 1799—an office equivalent to mayor and held by Bulfinch for 19 years. Of the numerous structures that he designed in Boston, most have long been demolished, including the Federal Street Theater (1794), the first theater in New England. His chief monumental works remain—the statehouse in Boston (1799), University Hall at Harvard (1815), and the Massachusetts General Hospital (1820). From 1818 to 1830 Bulfinch carried to completion the Capitol at Washington; of his own contributions there remains the west portico, with the terraces and steps forming the approach to it. In this work and in the Massachusetts statehouse he evolved an architectural composition that has been used for state capitols throughout the country. He designed a memorial column on Beacon Hill (1789), Massachusetts State Prison (1803), a number of Massachusetts courthouses, and Franklin Crescent in Boston (1793). The last was a long curved row of 16 residences, inspired by the continuous block of houses that had been erected by Robert Adam and others in England. The First Church of Christ in Lancaster, Mass. (1816-17), one of the few remaining churches of the many that he designed, is one of his finest works. Bulfinch's works bear a distinctive stamp of his own. Their elegance, repose, and refinement of detail rank them among the best products of the nation's early years.

See H. Kirker, The Architecture of Charles Bulfinch (1969).

Burchfield, Charles, 1893-1967, American painter, b. Ashtabula, Ohio, studied at the Cleveland School of Art. Living at first in Ohio, then moving (1925) to upstate New York, he worked (1921-20) as a wallpaper designer. His paintings, predominantly in watercolor, fall into three periods: from 1916 to the early 1920s, poetic evocations of nature; from the early 1920s to the early 1940s, bold, somber landscapes and urban scenes; and after 1943, a return to lyric expressions of nature, painted with a heightened sense of emotion. Although Burchfield is widely known for his depiction of crumbling Victorian mansions, false-front stores, railroad yards, and other relics of late-19th-century small-town America, his most successful works are usually considered to be his intense, boldly drawn, and highly colored portrayals of nature. Weather and sunlight effects are important in all his works, and along with his friend and contemporary Edward Hopper, he is considered a founder of American Scene painting. Among his many works in museums are Setting Sun through the Catalpas (Cleveland Mus. of Art), October (Columbus Gall. of Fine Art, Ohio), Freight Cars under a Bridge (Detroit Inst. of Arts), and An April Mood (Whitney Mus., New York City).

See The Drawings of Charles Burchfield with text by the artist (1968); Charles Burchfield's Journals (ed. by J. B. Townsend, 1992); biography by J. Baur (1982).

Burney, Charles, 1726-1814, English music historian, composer, and organist. His General History of Music (1776-89; 2d ed. 1935) was one of the first important music histories in English. He wrote The Present State of Music in France and Italy (1771) and The Present State of Music in Germany (1773). They were published together as Dr. Burney's Musical Tours in Europe (1959). The work describes European society, life, and customs as well as music and important musicians. His daughter, Fanny Burney, compiled his memoirs (1832).

See biographies by P. A. Scholes (1848) and R. H. Lonsdale (1965).

Thomson, Charles, 1729-1824, political leader in the American Revolution, b. Co. Londonderry (now Derry), Ireland. Emigrating to America in 1739, he later taught school and became a merchant. His pre-Revolutionary activities led John Adams to call him "the Sam Adams of Philadelphia." As secretary of the Continental Congress (1774-89), Thomson kept careful records of all proceedings and full notes of the debates. He was the moving spirit in the committee that obtained the design for the Great Seal of the United States. He wrote An Enquiry into the Causes of the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians from the British Interest (1759), translated the Septuagint and the New Testament (4 vol., 1808), and published A Synopsis of the Four Evangelists (1815).

See biography by L. R. Harley (1900).

Mingus, Charles, 1922-79, American jazz musician, b. Nogales, Ariz. Mingus was a bassist, pianist, bandleader, composer, and vocalist. He was one of the most important jazz composers of the 20th cent. and an influence on a broad spectrum of musicians. A charismatic, demanding, and sometimes violent risk-taker, Mingus created works with unconventional structures and innovative harmonies. In the 1950s and 60s he led groups noted for their collective improvisations, loose rhythms, and high energy. At various times in his career he played with Louis Armstrong, Lionel Hampton, Red Norvo, Charlie Parker, and Duke Ellington, to whom he dedicated his Open Letter to Duke. He organized his first group, a sextet, in 1945, and later (1955) formed the Charles Mingus Jazz Workshop, a group that brought him worldwide acclaim. His compositions include the ambitious Epitaph, first performed in 1989; Fables of Faubus; Better Git It in Your Soul; and Sue's Changes.

See his autobiography, Beneath the Underdog (1971); biographies by B. Priestly (1982) and G. Santoro (2000).

Inglis, Charles, 1734-1816, Anglican clergyman in America, b. Ireland. He emigrated to America in 1755. While assistant rector (1765-77) of Trinity Church, New York City, he actively espoused England's position in the struggle with the colonies. He refused to omit the prayers for the king, and his True Interest of America Impartially Stated (1776) and other pamphlets as well as his letters to the press, which he signed Papinian, were strongly Loyalist. In 1777, Inglis became rector of Trinity, but he returned to England in 1783 when the British evacuated New York. In 1787 he was appointed the first bishop of Nova Scotia for the Church of England.

See biography by R. U. Harris (1937).

McCarthy, Charles, 1873-1921, American political scientist and author, b. Brockton, Mass. He organized and directed (1901-21) at Madison, Wis., the first official legislative reference library in the country. Through published articles, lectures, and contact with legislators he became one of the chief minds behind the progressive legislation enacted in Wisconsin in the gubernatorial administration of Robert M. La Follette. He wrote The Wisconsin Idea (1912). McCarthy served (1914-15) as the first director of the U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations.

See biography by E. A. Fitzpatrick (1944).

Macintosh, Charles, 1766-1843, Scottish chemist and inventor. In 1823 he developed a waterproof fabric used to make raincoats that were named for him. His other research included preparing sugar of lead and inventing a commercially successful bleaching powder.
Macklin, Charles, 1697?-1797, English actor and dramatist, whose original name was Charles McLaughlin, b. Ireland. He began his career as a strolling player. His style of acting was radically different from the prevailing declamatory style of James Quin and Barton Booth. At first unsuccessful, he won fame with his dignified, tragic portrayal of Shylock in his production (1741) of The Merchant of Venice. This performance foreshadowed the naturalistic school of acting which was to be realized with David Garrick. His production (1772) of Macbeth, in which he used Scottish dress, was noted as an early attempt to achieve historical accuracy in costuming. Macklin's eccentricities and violent temper were notorious. He wrote and acted in Love à la Mode (1759) and The Man of the World (1781).

See biographies by E. A. Perry (1891) and W. W. Appleton (1960).

Churchill, Charles, 1731-64, English poet and satirist. Upon his family's insistence he took religious orders in 1756, but life as a London dandy suited him more, and he resigned his curacy. His first poem and perhaps his best work, The Rosciad (1761), a satire on the leading actresses and actors of the day, was an immediate success. His other works include The Prophecy of Famine (1763), a highly topical political satire, and An Epistle to William Hogarth (1763), attacking Hogarth for his heartless portrait of John Wilkes.

See his works (ed. by D. Grant, 1956); study by W. C. Brown (1953).

Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965, American painter and photographer, b. Philadelphia, studied at the School of Industrial Art there and later at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under William M. Chase. With Chase he made two visits to Europe to study art. His characteristic style is a rational, cool simplification in planes and volumes of industrial forms, rural buildings, and Shaker furnishings, although he fully explored the realistic possibilities of these subjects as well. His photographs exhibit a similar simplification and impersonality. Rolling Power (Smith College) exemplifies Sheeler's most realistic painting style; Midwest, 1954 (Walker Art Center, Minneapolis) is an example of his later, more abstract manner.

See C. Troyen and T. E. Stebbins, Jr., Charles Sheeler (2 vol., 1987).

Whittingham, Charles, 1767-1840, English printer. He established a printery in London in 1789, removing to Chiswick and founding the Chiswick Press in 1810. He was assisted in his work by his nephew, also named Charles Whittingham, 1795-1876, who succeeded him. The younger Whittingham revived the use of Caslon's old-style type in 1844. The printery returned to London in 1852. The Chiswick Press printed admirable editions of numerous books for the London publisher William Pickering. Pickering used as his device the anchor and dolphin of Aldus Manutius. William Morris began his active association with printing by commissioning the Chiswick Press to print The Roots of the Mountains in 1889.
Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1877, American naval officer and explorer, b. New York City, educated by his father. In 1815 he entered the merchant service and received (1818) an appointment as a midshipman. For his survey (1832-33) of Narragansett Bay he was designated (1833) head of the department of charts and instruments of the navy. Although an inexperienced leader, he was put in command of a government exploring expedition intended to provide accurate naval charts for the whaling industry. Wilkes, then a lieutenant, set sail (1838) from Norfolk, Va., in charge of a squadron of six ships and 346 seamen, and accompanied by a team of nine scientists and artists. They sailed around South America, did important research in the S Pacific, and explored the Antarctic. The portion of Antarctica that he explored was subsequently named Wilkes Land. Wilkes explored Fiji in 1840, visited the Hawaiian group, and in May, 1841, entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Pacific coast of the United States, and explored the Pacific Northwest.

After having completely encircled the globe (his was the last all-sail naval mission to do so), Wilkes returned to New York in June, 1842. In four years at sea he had logged some 87,000 miles and lost two ships and 28 men. His Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (5 vol. and an atlas) appeared in 1844. He edited the scientific reports of the expedition (20 vol. and 11 atlases, 1844-74) and was the author of Vol. XI (Meteorology) and Vol. XIII (Hydrography). Moreover, the specimens and artifacts brought back by expedition scientists ultimately formed the foundation for the Smithsonian Institution collection.

Despite his accomplishments, Wilkes acquired a reputation as an arrogant, cruel, and capricious leader. The impetuosity of his nature, for which he was twice court-martialed, was demonstrated when early in the Civil War, as commander of the San Jacinto, he stopped the British mail ship Trent and, contrary to all regulations, forcibly removed Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James M. Mason. The incident almost involved the Union in a war with England (see Trent Affair). Promoted to the rank of commodore in 1862, he commanded a squadron in the West Indies.

See biography by D. Henderson (1953, repr. 1971); W. Bixby, The Forgotten Voyage of Charles Wilkes (1966); R. Silverberg, Stormy Voyager (1968); A. Gurney, The Race to the White Continent (2000); N. Philbrick, Sea of Glory (2003).

Montagu, Charles: see Halifax, Charles Montagu, earl of.
Cotton, Charles, 1630-87, English author. He is chiefly remembered for his contribution to his friend Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler (5th ed. 1676). His pleasant, unaffected verse includes "An Ode to Winter" and "The Retirement." He also wrote burlesques of Vergil (1664) and Lucian (1665) and a translation of Montaigne's Essays (1685-86).
Sturt, Charles, 1795-1869, English explorer and administrator in Australia, b. India. In 1827 he arrived in Sydney with a detachment of the British army. While in command of an expedition (1828-29) to find the source of the Macquarie, he discovered (1828) the Darling River. On a second journey (1829) he explored the Murrumbidgee and found its junction with the Murray, which he followed by boat to its mouth in Lake Alexandrina. He resigned (1833) his commission because of impaired eyesight and settled in Australia. In 1844 he continued his exploration of the river system of S Australia, traveling up the Murray and Darling rivers and penetrating (1845) almost to the center of the continent. He was colonial treasurer (1845) and colonial secretary (1849-51). In 1853 he returned to England. He wrote Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia (1833) and Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia (1849, repr. 1969).

See biographies by G. Farwell (1963) and M. Langley (1969).

Goodnight, Charles, 1836-1929, Texas cattleman, b. Macoupin co., Ill. He went to Texas in 1846, where he joined the Texas Rangers and became a noted scout and Indian fighter. He was later a pioneer in cattle ranching in New Mexico and Colorado and in 1866 laid out the Goodnight cattle trail from Texas to Wyoming, later extended (1875) to Colorado. In 1877, in partnership with John Adair, he established in the Texas Panhandle the J A Ranch of nearly 1 million acres (404,700 hectares), on which he maintained about 100,000 head of cattle. He improved his herds by crossing shorthorns and Herefords with the native longhorns. By crossing bison and Polled Angus cattle he produced the first herd of cattalo. He also bred bison and is thereby credited with preserving the remnant of the South Plains herd. In 1880 he organized the Panhandle Stockmen's Association, which suppressed lawlessness and introduced purebred cattle.

See biography by J. E. Haley (1949).

Goodyear, Charles, 1800-1860, American inventor, b. New Haven, Conn., originator of vulcanized rubber. He failed in his earlier business ventures and was in jail for debt when he began his experiments with rubber, searching for a way to prevent it from sticking and melting in hot weather. He experimented endlessly, kneading various chemicals into the raw rubber. He achieved some success in 1837 with a patented acid and metal coating, but it was not until 1839 that he discovered the process of vulcanization. He spent further years in perfecting the process, patenting it in 1844. Goodyear had carried on his research in the face of poverty and debt and was forced to market his patent rights for a fraction of their value. He went to Europe to try to establish the rubber business there but was unsuccessful. He died, poor and overworked, leaving his family in debt.

See studies by R. F. Wolf (1939) and A. C. Regli (1941).

His son Charles Goodyear, 1833-96, b. Germantown, Pa., assisted him in the manufacturing and marketing of rubber articles. He later turned to shoe manufacturing, being one of the first to see the application of Howe's sewing machine to the making of shoes. He organized in 1871 the Goodyear Boot & Shoe Machinery Company of New York to manufacture machines. He was only partially successful until the consolidation in 1880 with Gordon McKay, his chief competitor.

Gore, Charles, 1853-1932, English prelate and theologian. As the first principal (1884-93) of Pusey House, a theological center at Oxford, he was a leading figure in the High Church movement (see England, Church of). In 1887 he founded the Society of the Resurrection, a community of celibate priests living under vows; this later became the Community of the Resurrection. He was also a founder-member of the Christian Social Union. In 1889 he edited Lux Mundi, a collection of essays that stated the views of modernists in the High Church. He was made canon of Westminster in 1894. In 1902 he was consecrated bishop of Worcester, in 1905 bishop of Birmingham, and in 1911 bishop of Oxford. Among his many works are The Church and the Ministry (1889), Christ and Society (1928), and The Philosophy of the Good Life (1930).
Bradlaugh, Charles, 1833-91, British social reformer, a secularist. Editor of the free-thinking weekly National Reformer from 1860 and later associated with Annie Besant, he was an early advocate of woman's suffrage, birth control, free speech, national education, trade unionism, and other controversial causes. In 1880, Bradlaugh was elected to Parliament after several unsuccessful attempts. Rather than take a Bible oath to be sworn in as a member of Parliament, Bradlaugh, an atheist, demanded the right to take an affirmation. This action provoked a great deal of controversy, and it was not until 1886 that the matter was settled in his favor. His numerous works include Land for the People (1877), The True Story of My Parliamentary Struggle (1882), and Speeches (1890).

See W. L. Arnstein, The Bradlaugh Case (1965); D. Tribe, President Charles Bradlaugh, M. P. (1971).

Brandon, Charles: see Suffolk, Charles Brandon, 1st duke of.
Bridges, Charles, fl. 1683-1740, English portrait painter, active (c.1735-c.1740) in Virginia. He was the most skillful practitioner of aristocratic portrait painting in the South. Among the works attributed to him are Mann Page the Second (Coll. of William and Mary) and Maria Taylor Byrd (Metropolitan Mus.).
Stewart, Charles, 1778-1869, American naval officer, b. Philadelphia. He was commissioned a lieutenant in 1798 after having served in the merchant marine and was a brilliant commander of the Constitution in the War of 1812. After a long and varied career Stewart was promoted to rear admiral on the retired list in 1862.
Dullin, Charles, 1885-1949, French actor, producer, and director. Dullin was an outstanding member of Copeau's Théâtre du Vieux Colombier. He organized and toured with his own group before opening the Théâtre de l'Atelier in Paris in 1921. There, among other experimental plays, he introduced the work of Pirandello to the French public.
Ives, Charles, 1874-1954, American composer and organist, b. Danbury, Conn., grad. Yale, 1898; pupil of Dudley Buck and Horatio Parker. He was an organist (1893-1904) in churches in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. In the insurance business from 1898 to 1930, Ives was concurrently composing music that was extremely original, iconoclastic, and advanced in style, anticipating some of the innovations of Schoenberg and Stravinsky, but not influencing musical trends because most of his works were not published as they were written. They were little known until 1939, when performance of his second piano sonata, Concord (1911-15), won him wide recognition. In 1947 his Third Symphony was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Ives's compositions include four numbered symphonies, orchestral suites, sonatas, organ pieces, choral works, a great deal of chamber music, and about 150 songs. His works are frequently dissonant, harmonically dense, and lushly scored with complexly layered themes, textures, and rhythms. In addition, he often uses vernacular American music, e.g., folk music, hymns and spirituals, marches, dances, rags, blues, and parlor songs, in his compositions, evoking the spirit of such aspects of American life as revival meetings and brass-band parades.

See his Essays before a Sonata (new ed. 1962) and his Memos, ed. by J. E. Kirkpatrick (1972); biography by H. and S. Cowell (rev. ed. 1969); V. Perlis, Charles Ives Remembered (1974); R. S. Perry, Charles Ives and the American Mind (1974); H. W. Hitchcock, Ives (1977).

Wesley, Charles, 1707-88, English Methodist preacher and hymn writer. As a student at Oxford he devoted himself to systematic study and to the regular practice of religious duties; he and companions whom he persuaded to adopt the same orderly course were taunted as "methodists." They formed a society, sometimes referred to as the Holy Club, of which his older brother John Wesley became the leader in 1729. Charles Wesley was ordained in the Church of England in 1735, and the same year both brothers sailed for Georgia, Charles to act as secretary to James Oglethorpe. The following year, however, he returned to England in ill health. After experiencing evangelical conversion in May, 1738, he began writing hymns and preaching at the great revival meetings led by the two Wesleys and George Whitefield. For 17 years Charles made continual evangelistic journeys, but after 1756 he worked mainly in Bristol and London. He was firmly opposed to all suggestion of separation from the Church of England. He is said to have produced about 6,500 hymns, many of which are still used in Protestant churches; among the best known are "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing" and "Jesus, Lover of My Soul."

See his journal, ed. by T. Jackson (1849); J. R. Tyson, Charles Wesley on Sanctification: A Biographical and Theological Study (1986) and Charles Wesley: A Reader (1989).

Robinson, Charles, 1818-94, American politician, first governor of the state of Kansas (1861-63), b. Hardwick, Mass. He studied medicine and in 1849 he joined the gold rush to California, where the next year he was elected to the California legislature; he opposed the establishment of slavery in California. He returned (1851) to Massachusetts, again practiced medicine, and for two years edited the Fitchburg News. In 1854, Robinson went to Kansas as agent of the Emigrant Aid Company, began the settlement of Lawrence, and commanded free-state forces in the Wakarusa War. Under the free-state constitution adopted by the Topeka convention he was elected (Jan., 1856) governor. He attempted to avoid conflict with federal authorities, but he ignored the laws passed by the proslavery territorial legislature of 1855. After taking office he was arrested for treason and usurpation of office by the proslavery party. A federal grand jury acquitted him. Robinson was reelected in 1858 and again in 1859, under the Wyandotte Constitution, but he waited until Kansas was admitted (1861) to the Union before assuming the governorship. He was elected state senator in 1874 and 1876, was a regent of the state university (1864-74, 1893-94), and was superintendent of the Haskell Institute at Lawrence (1887-89). He wrote The Kansas Conflict (1892).

See biography by F. W. Blackmar (1901, repr. 1971).

Percier, Charles, 1764-1838, French architect. He won (1786) the Grand Prix de Rome, and in 1794 he became associated with Pierre François Léonard Fontaine. Napoleon appointed them as government architects, and this post lasted until the emperor's fall. In the development of the Empire style under Napoleon's official sponsorship, Percier and Fontaine became its official interpreters, not only for Paris but also in Antwerp, Brussels, and Rome, where they designed many residences. They worked (1802-12) on the palaces of the Louvre and the Tuileries, designed the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, and did alterations and decorations for the imperial châteaux of Versailles, Malmaison, Compiègne, and Saint-Cloud. As interior decorators they designed every detail of furniture, fabric, hardware, and wallpaper in conformity with Empire motives. The partnership dissolved in 1814, and Percier thereafter conducted a student atelier. With Fontaine he published several books on architecture in Rome and interior decoration.
Perrault, Charles, 1628-1703, French poet. His collections of eight fairy tales, Histoires ou contes du temps passé [stories or tales of olden times] (1697) gave classic form to the traditional stories of Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Puss in Boots, Little Red Ridinghood, and Hop-o'-My-Thumb. In the frontispiece of the collection appears the expression "Contes de ma mère Loye" [tales of Mother Goose]. Perrault also published three tales in verse (1694). He is also famous for the stormy literary quarrel that he aroused with a poem (1687) comparing ancient authors unfavorably with modern writers. Boileau, the chief defender of the ancients, bandied insults with Perrault until 1694. This "quarrel of the ancients and the moderns" is considered a harbinger of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
Calvert, Charles, 3d Baron Baltimore, 1637-1715, second proprietor of Maryland. He was sent over as deputy governor of that province in 1661 by his father, Cecilius Calvert, 2d Baron Baltimore, and at his father's death in 1675 succeeded to the proprietorship. A Roman Catholic faced by an overwhelming Protestant population, he ruled arbitrarily, restricting the suffrage, and filling the offices with his partisans. He became involved in a bitter dispute with William Penn over the northern boundary of his grant and in 1684 went to England to defend himself in this dispute and to answer charges of favoring Catholics and obstructing customs collection. He never returned. His charter was overthrown by a Protestant revolt in 1689, and in 1692 a royal government was established.

See C. C. Hall, The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (1902).

Orléans, Charles, duc d', 1391-1465, French prince and poet; nephew of King Charles VI. After the assassination of his father, Louis d'Orléans, he became (1407) titular head of the Armagnacs (see Armagnacs and Burgundians). After the English invasion of France in 1415, Charles was captured at the battle of Agincourt and remained in captivity in England until 1440, when he was ransomed.

In retirement at Blois, he devoted the rest of his life to writing verse and to the society of literary men. Among his poems, which are remarkable for their polish and charm, is the rondeau, "Le temps a laissié son manteau" [the season has shed its cloak]. There are translations of his poems by Andrew Lang, W. E. Henley, and Ezra Pound. Charles's son was King Louis XII.

See biography by E. McLeod (1970).

Hermite, Charles, 1822-1901, French mathematician. A professor at the École polytechnique, Paris (1869-76), and at the Faculty of Sciences (1869-97), he exerted a strong influence on the French school of mathematics. He made valuable contributions to the theory of numbers, the theory of elliptic functions, and the theory of equations (especially of the fifth degree). In 1873, Hermite proved the transcendence of the irrational number e (see separate article).
Münch, Charles, 1891-1968, French conductor and violinist, b. Alsace. Having conducted and directed orchestras in Paris (1933-48), Münch appeared for three seasons from 1947 as guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic, and was chief conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1949 until 1962. He was noted for his interpretations of modern French works.

See his I Am a Conductor (1954, tr. 1955).

Colbert, Charles: see Croissy, Charles Colbert, marquis de.
Koechlin, Charles, 1867-1950, French composer. Koechlin studied composition with Massenet and Fauré. He composed in all forms and many styles, but his music is rarely performed. Koechlin was also active as a teacher and music theorist, and wrote books about Fauré and Debussy, for some of whose works he did orchestration.
Kramař, Charles or Karel, 1860-1937, Czechoslovakian political leader. Elected (1891) to the Austrian parliament, Kramař soon became leader of the liberal nationalist Young Czech party. An ardent Slavophile, he called (1898) for an alliance of Austria-Hungary and Russia against the Germans, whom he regarded as the implacable enemy of all Slavs. He publicly advocated Czech autonomy within the Austrian Empire but privately favored an independent Czech state within a Russian-led Slavic federation. In World War I he led the resistance movement of the Czech nationalists at home, while Thomas G. Masaryk and Eduard Beneš led it abroad. He received a death sentence (1916) for treason, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. An amnesty (1917) brought about his release. On Oct. 28, 1918, Kramař led a bloodless coup in Prague, making Czech independence from Austria a reality. He was (1918-19) the first premier of the new state under President Masaryk, but was forced to resign as a result of his opposition to land reform and other progressive measures. After 1919 he led a rightist minority against Masaryk and Beneš.
Babbage, Charles, 1792-1871, English mathematician and inventor. He devoted most of his life and expended much of his private fortune and a government subsidy in an attempt to perfect a mechanical calculating machine that foreshadowed present-day machines. He was a founder of the Royal Astronomical Society. He wrote Tables of Logarithms (1827) and an autobiography (1864).

See biographies by M. Moseley (1970) and D. Halacy (1970).

Weidman, Charles, 1901-75, American modern dancer and choreographer, b. Lincoln, Neb. Weidman performed with the troupe formed by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn from 1920 to 1927, when he and Doris Humphrey left to form their own company and school. He created many dances that combined abstract movement with gestures based on his own brilliant mime technique. After starting his own company and school in 1945, Weidman continued to teach and perform. In 1960 he established the Expression of the Two Arts Theater in New York City with the graphic artist Mikhail Santaro. Weidman's most renowned pupil was perhaps José Limón.
Kemble, Charles: see under Kemble, Roger.
For people with family name Charles, see Charles (surname)

Charles is a given name for males, and has its origins in the Common Germanic term Churl, where it originally was used to indicate a free man, but not one belonging to the nobility.

Derivations of Charles include Charlie and Chuck.

Female versions of this name include Charlotte, Lotte, Charlotta, Carolyn, Lotta and Charlene.

Charles may also refer to:

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