The chansons de geste
, Old French
for "songs of heroic
deeds [or lineages]", are the epic poems
that appear at the dawn of French literature
. The earliest known examples date from the late eleventh
and early twelfth centuries
, nearly a hundred years before the emergence of the lyric poetry
of the trouvères
) and the earliest verse romances
. The French chanson
gave rise to the Old Spanish
tradition of the cantar de gesta
Composed in Old French
and apparently intended for oral performance by jongleurs
, the chansons de geste
narrate legendary incidents (sometimes based on real events) in the history of France
during the eighth
and ninth centuries
, the age of Charles Martel
and Louis the Pious
, with emphasis on their conflicts with the Moors
. To these historical legends, fantasy
is gradually added; giants
, and monsters
increasingly appear among the foes along with Muslims
. There is also an increasing dose of Eastern adventure, drawing on contemporary experiences in the Crusades
; in addition, one series of chansons
retells the events of the First Crusade
and the first years of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
. Finally, in chansons
of the thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries
, the historical and military aspects wane, and the fantastic elements in the stories dominate.
The traditional subject matter of the chansons de geste became known as the Matter of France. This distinguished them from romances concerned with the Matter of Britain, that is, King Arthur and his knights; and with the so-called Matter of Rome, covering the Trojan War, the conquests of Alexander the Great, the life of Julius Cæsar and some of his Imperial successors, who were given medieval makeovers as exemplars of chivalry.
The poems contain a small and unvarying assortment of character types; the repertoire of valiant hero, brave traitor, shifty or cowardly traitor, Saracen giant, beautiful Saracen princess, and so forth is one that is easily exhausted. As the genre matured, fantasy elements were introduced. Some of the characters that were devised by the poets in this manner include the fairy Oberon, who made his literary debut in Huon de Bordeaux; and the magic horse Bayard, who first appears in Renaud de Montauban. Quite soon an element of self-parody appears; even the august Charlemagne was not above gentle mockery in the Pèlerinage de Charlemagne.
The origin of the chanson de geste
as a form is much debated. The nineteenth century
medievalist Gaston Paris
, recognising that they drew on an oral epic tradition, identified this with narrative songs (sometimes called cantilenae
) that are occasionally mentioned by contemporary authors in other genres.
Such songs about important events were sometimes being sung very soon after the military events described. As a first example, a contemporary historian records that the names of those who fell at the very minor ambush at Roncesvalles were on everyone's lips sixty years after the event, indicating the growth of a legend quite out of proportion to the original incident -- a legend that would result, long afterwards, in the various versions of the Song of Roland that are now known. As a second example, there are references to contemporary songs on the subject of the First Crusade in two historical sources on that Crusade, supporting the statement by Graindor of Brie, composer of the surviving Chanson d'Antioche, that he had drawn on the original work of the jongleur and participant Richard le Pèlerin. The Spanish Cantar de Mio Cid shows that a comparable narrative tradition existed in Spain at the same period.
Gaston Paris also believed that the early singers followed the courts of kings and military leaders, as did Norse skalds (lyric poets) and some Celtic bards, but the evidence on this is less conclusive.
Another school of thought, championed by Joseph Bédier, holds that the poems were the invention of the poets who wrote them. Bédier further suggests that some of the stories were first invented by monks, who used them to advertise pilgrimage sites by connecting them not only with saints but also by legendary heroes of folklore. Magical relics frequently appear in the tales. This point of view has fewer proponents since the development of Oral theory; it is additionally problematic because monks were specifically forbidden to dabble in the literature of the jongleurs.
Early chansons de geste
are composed in ten-syllable lines grouped in assonanced stanzas
(meaning that the last stressed vowel is the same in each line throughout the stanza, but the last consonant differs from line to line). These stanzas are typically called laisses
. Stanzas are of variable length. An example from the Chanson de Roland
illustrates the technique. The assonance in this stanza is on e
- Desuz un pin, delez un eglanter
- Un faldestoed i unt, fait tout d'or mer:
- La siet li reis ki dulce France tient.
- Blanche ad la barbe et tut flurit le chef,
- Gent ad le cors et le cuntenant fier.
- S'est kil demandet, ne l'estoet enseigner.
- Under a pine tree, by a rosebush,
- there is a throne made entirely of gold.
- There sits the king who rules sweet France;
- his beard is white, with a full head of hair.
- He is noble in carriage, and proud of bearing.
- If anyone is looking for the King, he doesn't need to be pointed out.
Later chansons are composed in monorhyme stanzas, in which the last syllable of each line rhymes fully throughout the stanza. A second change is that each line now contains twelve syllables instead of ten. The following example is from the opening lines of Les Chétifs, a chanson in the Crusade cycle. The rhyme is on ie:
- Or s'en fuit Corbarans tos les plains de Surie,
- N'enmaine que .ii. rois ens en sa conpaignie.
- S'enporte Brohadas, fis Soudan de Persie;
- En l'estor l'avoit mort a l'espee forbie
- Li bons dus Godefrois a le chiere hardie
- Tres devant Anthioce ens en la prairie.
- So Corbaran escaped across the plains of Syria;
- He took only two kings in his company.
- He carried away Brohadas, son of the Sultan of Persia,
- Who had been killed in the battle by the clean sword
- Of the brave-spirited good duke Godfrey
- Right in front of Antioch, down in the meadow.
The songs were recited (sometimes to casual audiences, sometimes possibly in a more formal setting) by jongleurs, who would sometimes accompany themselves, or be accompanied, on the vielle
, a mediæval fiddle
played with a bow. Several manuscript texts include lines in which the jongleur demands attention, threatens to stop singing, promises to continue the next day, and asks for money or gifts. Since paper was extremely expensive and not all poets could read, it seems likely that even after the chansons
had begun to be written down, many performances continued to depend on oral transmission. As an indication of the role played by orality in the tradition of the chanson de geste
, lines and sometimes whole stanzas (especially in the earlier examples) are noticeably formulaic
in nature, making it possible both for the poet to construct a poem in performance and for the audience to grasp a new theme with ease.
The poems themselves
Approximately eighty chansons de geste survive, in manuscripts that date from the 12th to the 15th century. Several popular chansons were written down more than once in varying forms. The earliest chansons are all (more or less) anonymous; many later ones have named authors.
About 1215 Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, in the introductory lines to his Girart de Vienne, subdivided the Matter of France, the usual subject area of the chansons de geste, into three cycles, which revolved around three main characters (see quotation at Matter of France). There are several other less formal lists of chansons, or of the legends they incorporate. One can be found in the fabliau entitled Des Deux Bordeors Ribauz, a humorous tale of the second half of the 13th century, in which a jongleur lists the stories he knows. Another is included by the Catalan troubadour Guiraut de Cabrera in his humorous poem Ensenhamen, better known from its first words as "Cabra juglar": this is addressed to a juglar (jongleur) and purports to instruct him on the poems he ought to know but doesn't.
The listing below is arranged according to Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube's cycles, extended with two additional groupings and with a final list of chansons that fit into no cycle. There are numerous differences of opinion about the categorization of individual chansons.
Geste du roi
The chief character is usually Charlemagne or one of his immediate successors. A pervasive theme is the King's role as champion of Christianity. This cycle contains the first of the chansons
to be written down, the Chanson de Roland
or "Song of Roland
Geste de Garin de Monglane
The central character is not Garin de Monglane
but his supposed great-grandson, Guillaume d'Orange
. These chansons
deal with knights who were typically younger sons, not heirs
, who seek land and glory through combat with the Infidel (in practice, Muslim) enemy.
Geste de Doon de Mayence
This cycle concerns traitors
and rebels against royal authority. In each case the revolt ends with the defeat of the rebels and their eventual repentance.
- Gormond et Isembart
- Girart de Roussillon (1160-1170). The hero Girart de Roussillon also figures in Girart de Vienne, in which he is identified as a son of Garin de Monglane. There is a later sequel:
- Renaud de Montauban or Les Quatre Fils Aymon (end of the 12th century)
- Raoul de Cambrai, apparently begun by Bertholais; existing version from end of 12th century
- Doön de Mayence (mid 13th century)
- Doon de Nanteuil current in the second half of the 12th century, now known only in fragments which derive from a 13th century version. To this several sequels were attached:
- Aye d'Avignon, probably composed between 1195 and 1205. The fictional heroine is first married to Garnier de Nanteuil, who is son of Doon de Nanteuil and grandson of Doon de Mayence. After Garnier’s death she marries the Saracen Ganor
- Gui de Nanteuil, evidently popular around 1207 when the troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras mentions the story. The fictional hero is son of the heroine of Aye d'Avignon (to which Gui de Nanteuil forms a sequel)
- Tristan de Nanteuil. The fictional hero is son of the hero of Gui de Nanteuil
- Parise la Duchesse. The fictional heroine is daughter of the heroine of Aye d'Avignon. Exiled from France, she gives birth to a son, Hugues, who becomes king of Hungary
- Maugis d'Aigremont
- Vivien l'Amachour de Monbranc
This local cycle of epics of Lorraine traditional history, in the late form in which it is now known, includes details evidently drawn from Huon de Bordeaux
and Ogier le Danois
Not listed by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, this cycle deals with the First Crusade
and its immediate aftermath.
- Chanson d'Antioche, apparently begun by Richard le Pèlerin c. 1100; earliest surviving text by Graindor de Douai c. 1180; expanded version 14th century
- Les Chétifs telling the adventures (mostly fictional) of the poor crusaders led by Peter the Hermit; the hero is Harpin de Bourges. The episode was eventually incorporated, c. 1180, by Graindor de Douai in his reworking of the Chanson d'Antioche
- Matabrune tells the story of old Matabrune and of the great-grandfather of Godefroi de Bouillon
- Le Chevalier au Cigne tells the story of Elias, grandfather of Godefroi de Bouillon. Originally composed around 1192, it was afterwards extended and divided into several branches
- Les Enfances Godefroi or "Childhood exploits of Godefroi" tells the story of the youth of Godefroi de Bouillon and his three brothers
- Chanson de Jérusalem
- La Mort de Godefroi de Bouillon, quite unhistorical, narrates Godefroi’s poisoning by the Patriarch of Jerusalem
- Baudouin de Sebourg (early 14th century)
- Le Bâtard de Bouillon (early 14th century)
Legacy and adaptations
The chansons de geste
created a body of mythology
that lived on well after the creative force of the genre itself was spent. The Italian
epics of Torquato Tasso
), Orlando innamorato
(1495) by Matteo Boiardo
, and Orlando furioso
by Ludovico Ariosto
are all founded on the legends of the paladins of Charlemagne that first appeared in the chansons de geste
. As such, their incidents and plot devices later became central to works of English literature such as Edmund Spenser
's The Faerie Queene
; Spenser attempted to adapt the form devised to tell the tale of the triumph of Christianity
to tell instead of the triumph of Protestantism
over Roman Catholicism
. The German poet Wolfram von Eschenbach
based his (incomplete) 13th century epic Willehalm
, consisting of seventy-eight manuscripts, on the life of William of Orange
. The chansons were also recorded in the Icelandic
Indeed, until the 19th century, the tales of Roland and Charlemagne were as important as the tales of King Arthur and the Holy Grail, and the Italian epics on these themes were still accounted major works of literature. It is only in the later nineteenth and twentieth century that the Matter of France was finally eclipsed by the Matter of Britain.
The narrative structure
of the chanson de geste
has been compared to the one in the Nibelungenlied
and in creole legends
by Henri Wittmann
on the basis of common narreme
structure as first developed in the work of Eugene Dorfman
and Jean-Pierre Tusseau