Champlain

Champlain

[sham-pleyn; for 1 also Fr. shahn-plan]
Champlain, Samuel de, 1567-1635, French explorer, the chief founder of New France.

After serving in France under Henry of Navarre (King Henry IV) in the religious wars, Champlain was given command of a Spanish fleet sailing to the West Indies, Mexico, and the Isthmus of Panama. He described this three-year tour to the French king in Bref Discours (1859). In 1603 he made his first voyage to New France as a member of a fur-trading expedition. He explored the St. Lawrence River as far as the rapids at Lachine and described his voyage in Des Sauvages (1603).

With the sieur de Monts, who had a monopoly of the trade of the region, Champlain returned in 1604 to found a colony, which was landed at the mouth of the St. Croix River. In 1605 the colony moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, N.S.), and in the next three years Champlain explored the New England coast south to Martha's Vineyard, discovering Mt. Desert Island and most of the larger rivers of Maine and making the first detailed charts of the coast. After the sieur de Monts's privileges had been revoked, the colony had to be abandoned, and through the efforts of Champlain a new one was established on the St. Lawrence River.

In 1608 in the ship Le Don de Dieu, he brought his colonists to the site of Quebec. In the spring of 1609, accompanying a war party of Huron against the Iroquois, Champlain discovered the lake that bears his name, and near Crown Point, N.Y., the Iroquois were met and routed by French troops. The incident is believed to be largely responsible for the later hatred of the French by the Iroquois.

In 1612 Champlain returned to France, where he received a new grant of the fur-trade monopoly. Returning in 1613, he set off on a journey to the western lakes. He reached only Allumette Island in the Ottawa River that year, but in 1615 he went with Étienne Brulé and a party of Huron to Georgian Bay on Lake Huron, returning southeastward by way of Lake Ontario. Accompanying another Huron war party to an attack on an Onondaga village in present-day New York, Champlain was wounded and forced to spend the winter with the Huron.

Thereafter Champlain devoted his time to the welfare of the colony, of which he was the virtual governor. He helped to persuade Richelieu to found the Company of One Hundred Associates, which was to take over the interests of the colony. In 1629 Quebec was suddenly captured by the English, and Champlain was carried away to four years of exile in England; there he prepared the third edition of his Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1632). When New France was restored to France in 1632, Champlain returned. In 1634 he sent Jean Nicolet into the West, thus extending the French explorations and claims as far as Wisconsin. He died on Christmas Day, 1635, and was buried in Quebec.

Champlain's works were issued by the Champlain Society (1922-36) with English and French texts. See also biographies by N. E. Dionne (1905, repr. 1963), S. E. Morison (1972), and D. H. Fischer (2008).

Champlain, Lake, 490 sq mi (1,269 sq km), 125 mi (201 km) long and from 0.5 to 14 mi (0.8-23 km) wide, forming part of the New York-Vermont border and extending into Quebec. Lake Champlain lies in an elongated plain between the Adirondacks and the Green Mts. A link in the Hudson-Saint Lawrence waterway, the lake is connected with the Hudson (at Fort Edward) by the Champlain division of the New York State Canal System; the Richelieu River connects the lake with the St. Lawrence. Lake George drains into it through a narrow channel, and many islands dot its surface, including Grand Isle, Isle La Motte, and Valcour Island. The region is noted for its scenery and has many resorts. Burlington, Vt., and Plattsburgh, N.Y., are the largest cities on the lake's shores. The lake, named for the explorer Samuel de Champlain, was the scene of battles in the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, of a naval engagement in 1776, and of the American victory of Thomas Macdonough in the War of 1812.

(born 1567, Brouage, France—died Dec. 25, 1635, Quebec, New France) French explorer. He made several expeditions to North America before founding Quebec in 1608 with 32 colonists, most of whom did not survive the first winter. He joined with the northern Indian tribes to defeat Iroquois marauders and promoted the fur trade with the Indians. He discovered Lake Champlain in 1609 and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes. English privateers besieged Quebec in 1628, when England and France were at war, and he was taken prisoner. In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633 Champlain made his last voyage to Quebec, where he lived until his death.

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Lake between Vermont and New York, U.S. Located on the states' northern boundaries and extending into Canada about 6 mi (10 km), it is about 125 mi (200 km) long and has an area of 430 sq mi (1,115 sq km). It was visited in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain. In 1776 it was the scene of the first British-American naval battle and in 1814 of a U.S. naval victory over the British. A link in the waterway between New York City's harbour and the lower St. Lawrence River, it is used extensively for commercial and pleasure-boat navigation.

Learn more about Champlain, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1567, Brouage, France—died Dec. 25, 1635, Quebec, New France) French explorer. He made several expeditions to North America before founding Quebec in 1608 with 32 colonists, most of whom did not survive the first winter. He joined with the northern Indian tribes to defeat Iroquois marauders and promoted the fur trade with the Indians. He discovered Lake Champlain in 1609 and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes. English privateers besieged Quebec in 1628, when England and France were at war, and he was taken prisoner. In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633 Champlain made his last voyage to Quebec, where he lived until his death.

Learn more about Champlain, Samuel de with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake between Vermont and New York, U.S. Located on the states' northern boundaries and extending into Canada about 6 mi (10 km), it is about 125 mi (200 km) long and has an area of 430 sq mi (1,115 sq km). It was visited in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain. In 1776 it was the scene of the first British-American naval battle and in 1814 of a U.S. naval victory over the British. A link in the waterway between New York City's harbour and the lower St. Lawrence River, it is used extensively for commercial and pleasure-boat navigation.

Learn more about Champlain, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Champlain is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Prescott and Russell on the Ottawa River.

Communities

The township comprises the communities of Aberdeen, Cassburn, Green Lane, Happy Hollow, Henrys Corners, L'Ange-Gardien, L'Orignal, Pleasant Corners, Ritchance, Riviera Estate, Sandy Hill, Springhill, Vankleek Hill, Vankleek Hill Station and Village Lanthier.

Demographics

According to the Canada 2006 Census:

  • Population: 8,683
  • % Change (2001-2006): 1.1
  • Dwellings: 3,649
  • Area (km².): 207.18
  • Density (persons per km².): 41.9

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