Sealed chamber supplying a high-pressure atmosphere primarily for medical therapy. Breathing air or oxygen at typically 1.5–3 times normal pressure increases the oxygen level in tissues. This effect is used, for example, to treat carbon monoxide poisoning or to inhibit growth of anaerobic bacteria (as in gas gangrene). The compressive effect of the elevated pressure causes damaging gas bubbles in tissues (as in air embolism or decompression sickness) to shrink and gradually be absorbed.
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Radiation detector developed by C.T.R. Wilson. Its detecting medium is a supersaturated vapour (see saturation) that condenses around ions produced by the passage of energetic charged particles, such as alpha particles, beta particles, or protons. In a Wilson cloud chamber, supersaturation is caused by the cooling induced by a sudden expansion of the saturated vapour by the motion of a piston or an elastic membrane. In a diffusion chamber, the saturated vapour is cooled to supersaturation as it diffuses into a region kept cold by a coolant such as solid carbon dioxide or liquid helium.
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Any of various voluntary organizations of business firms, public officials, professional people, and public-spirited citizens whose primary interest is in publicizing, promoting, and developing commercial and industrial opportunities in their local area, and usually also community schools, streets, housing, and public works. The International Chamber of Commerce (founded 1920) acts as the voice of the business community in the international field and runs a court of arbitration for settling commercial disputes. National chambers of commerce exist in most industrialized, free-enterprise countries. The first to use the name was founded in Paris in 1601; the first U.S. chamber of commerce was that of the state of New York, founded in 1768.
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Music composed for small instrumental ensembles and performed without a conductor. Traditionally intended for performance in a room or reception hall, often solely for the performers' own pleasure, chamber music is now often heard in concert halls. It began with the 16th-century instrumental consort, and long continued to be associated with aristocratic households. The duo sonata (usually for violin and continuo) and trio sonata appeared in early 17th-century Italy. The string quartet arose in the 1750s and remains the best-known chamber genre and ensemble. The serenade, nocturne, and divertimento were Classical genres for varying instrumental forces, often intended to accompany meals and other activities. Standard ensembles include the string trio (violin, viola, cello), string quintet (two violins, two violas, cello), and piano trio (piano, violin, cello). The chamber orchestra, usually with fewer than 25 musicians, is often used for 18th-century music and usually requires a conductor. Seealso sonata.
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Subatomic-particle detector that uses a superheated liquid which boils into tiny bubbles of vapour along the tracks of the particles. As charged particles move through the liquid, they knock electrons from the atoms of the liquid, creating ions. If the liquid is close to its boiling point, the first bubbles form around these ions. The observable tracks can be photographed and analyzed to measure the behaviour of the charged particles. Developed in 1952 by Donald Glaser, the bubble chamber proved very useful in the 1960s and '70s for the study of high-energy nuclear and particle physics.
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For most of the history of the Dune universe, the first no-chamber was considered to have been constructed on Ix. Inside this chamber Hwi Noree was grown by the Ixians with biological technology they bought from the Bene Tleilax. The development of the chamber itself was a combination of efforts on other devices such as a device that records the thoughts of Leto II into a written journal, a device that hides the journals from prescient vision, and experiments to create a navigation machine that could replace a Spacing Guild Navigator.
An early experimental model, which may or may not have actually been the first no-chamber, was at Dar-es-Balat, where the journals of the God Emperor Leto II were hidden.
However, we learn in the Prelude to Dune trilogy that the first no-chamber was actually invented by a man named Chobyn preceding the times of Dune. Chobyn created this no-chamber for the Baron Vladimir Harkonnen, and it is in this no-chamber that Duncan Idaho and Miles Teg hide during the events of Heretics of Dune. This technology was lost, and then re-invented by the Ixians.
This technology was later incorporated into the No-ship.