See his autobiography (1931, tr. 1989); biographies by J.-P. Crespelle (1970), S. Alexander (1978), H. Keller (1979), and J. Wullschlager (2008); studies by F. Meyer (tr. 1964), J. J. Sweeney (1946, repr. 1970), W. Haftmann (1974), and J. Wilson (2007).
(born July 7, 1887, Vitebsk, Belorussia, Russian Empire—died March 28, 1985, Saint-Paul, Alpes-Maritimes, France) Belarusan French painter, printmaker, and designer. After studying painting in St. Petersburg, he moved to Paris in 1910. During the next four years he mixed with the avant-garde there and created what is often considered his best work in the style he would explore for the next 60 years. Often the principal figure in his fantastical works is the painter himself, and memories of Jewish life and folklore in Belarus and themes from the Bible are main sources of imagery. The often whimsical figurative elements in his works are frequently depicted upside down and distributed on the canvas in an arbitrary fashion. In the 1920s he launched a career in printmaking, producing hundreds of etchings for special editions of books. In 1941 he left for New York City, where he designed sets and costumes for Igor Stravinsky's ballet The Firebird. He later produced stained-glass windows and murals for public buildings in Jerusalem, Paris, and the U.S.
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The mosaic was the subject of a 1974 documentary film The Gift: Four Seasons Mosaic of Marc Chagall directed by Chuck Olin.