Chadderton (pop. 33,000) is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England. It lies at the foothills of the Pennines, on the River Irk and the Rochdale Canal, west of Oldham, south of Rochdale, and northeast of the city of Manchester.
Historically a part of Lancashire, Chadderton was chiefly distinguished for its two ancient mansions, Foxdenton Hall and Chadderton Hall, and for the prestigious families by whom they were occupied. Chadderton's early history is marked by its status as a manorial township, with its own line of lords. This township developed independently of its now larger neighbours, and was of importance both regionally and nationally by way of contributing six High Sheriffs of Lancashire, and a Governor of the Isle of Man. Chadderton was anciently governed by its own lords and overlords which included the de Chethams, de Radcylffes, de Asshetons, and de Traffords, the latter of which changed their surname to de Chaderton.
The urbanisation and expansion of Chadderton largely coincided with developments in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and the Victorian era. As a result of a factory building boom during the late-19th century, Chadderton had transformed from a rural township into a major mill town, and the second most populous urban district in the United Kingdom. By the First World War, the success of the local cotton spinning sector during this period had resulted in a densely populated landscape occupied by over fifty cotton mills. Although those industries declined during the mid 20th century, the legacy of Chadderton's industrial past is marked by several surviving cotton mills.
Unmentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, Chadderton does not appear in records until around 1220, when a legal document stated that Robert, Rector of Prestwich gave land to Richard, son of Gilbert, in exchange for an annual fee of one silver penny. Following the Norman conquest of England, Chadderton was made a constituent manor of the wider Royal Estate of Tottington, an extensive Fee held by Roger de Montbegon, the Norman overlord. Taxation and governance continued on this basis throughout the Middle Ages, with the Barons Montbegon of Hornby Castle, near Lancaster, holding the estate until it passed to the Barons Lacy of Clitheroe Castle and then onto local famillies. During the High Middle Ages, pieces of land in Chadderton were granted to religious orders, including Cockersand Abbey and the Knights Hospitaller.
The manorialism system was strong in Chadderton, and added considerable prestige to the township, which lay in a region that otherwise had weak local lordship. Throughout the Middle Ages, Chadderton constituted a manor-township, centred on the hill by the banks of the River Irk, known as Chadderton Fold. Chadderton Fold consisted of a cluster of cottages centred around a manor house, Chadderton Hall, linked with a water powered corn mill. Chadderton Hall was owned and occupied by the de Chaddertons, and in the 13th century Geoffrey de Chadderton became the Lord of the Manor of Tottington.
The de Chaddertons' involvement in regional and national affairs added prestige to what was otherwise an obscure and rural township. William Chaderton was Bishop of Chester from 1579 to 1595 and held distinguished academic posts, such as Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity. Laurence Chaderton was the first Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and among the first translators of the King James Version of the Bible.
The small, scattered community in and around Chadderton was primarily agrarian, with the growing and milling of grain and cereal being the main labour of the people. Hand-loom weaving in the domestic system supplimented the incomes of local people.
Chadderton owes much of its history to the Industrial Revolution, in particular to 19th century cotton spinning, which brought rapid expansion, prosperity, and economic growth.
The Rochdale Canal passes through the western part of Chadderton.
Lying within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire since the early 12th century, the boundaries of Chadderton have varied from time to time. Chadderton anciently formed part of the hundred of Salford for civil jurisdiction. In 1507, two constables were appointed to uphold law and order in Chadderton. In 1873, the Chadderton Local Board of Health was formed as a regulatory body responsible for standards of hygiene and sanitation in the locality. From 1894 to 1974, Chadderton Urban District was a local government district within the administrative county of Lancashire. Chadderton Urban District Council comprised eighteen members. For ecclesiastical purposes Chadderton was part of the of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, within the extensive Diocese of Lichfield. This was later divided to form the Diocese of Chester, and eventually the Diocese of Manchester.
During the early 20th century there were attempts to both merge with the neighbouring County Borough of Oldham, and, conversely, petition Queen Elizabeth II to elevate Chadderton Urban District to a Municipal borough. However, neither were achieved.
Under the Local Government Act 1972, the town's Urban District status was abolished, and Chadderton has, since 1 April 1974, formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, within Greater Manchester.
Chadderton forms part of the Oldham West and Royton parliamentary constituency, which returns one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons. In 2006, representations were made to the Boundary Commission for England calling for the constituency name to be changed, to include the name of Chadderton. It was pointed out that Chadderton was much larger and more populous than Royton. However the commission rejected the proposed alternative name (Oldham West, Chadderton and Royton) on the grounds that it was too long and it did not believe that there was a significant amount of support for a name change.
At (53.5462°, -2.1426°), and north-northwest of London, Chadderton lies at the foothills of the Pennines, around east-southeast of Middleton, in the northeast part of the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third largest conurbation. It lies on undulating land, rising from above sea level in the west to in the east. Tandle Hill, above Chadderton Heights, on the hillier northern edge of the town, is its highest point at .
Chadderton's modern commercial centre lies close to the boundary with Oldham; the expansion of Oldham in the late-19th century gave this part of Chadderton an "urban feel". There is a mixture of high-density urban areas, suburbs, and semi-rural locations in Chadderton. There is some permanent grassland but overwhelmingly the land use in the town is urban. The territory of Chadderton is contiguous with other settlements on all sides, including a shared boundary with the city of Manchester to the southwest.
Localities within Chadderton include Baretrees, Busk, Butler Green, Chadderton Fold, Healds Green, Holden Fold, Nimble Nook, and White Gate. Chadderton Fold, the former centrepoint of Chadderton, lies north-northwest of Chadderton's modern commercial centre. Hollinwood was formerly a village and industrial district of Chadderton, but was incorporated into neighbouring Oldham following a court case in 1713.
Chadderton has been described as a "relatively prosperous town [...] which makes it a popular residential area.". During the Victorian era, Chadderton's economy was heavily dependent on manufacturing industries, especially the spinning of cotton, weaving of silk, and production of hats. Industries ancillary to these sectors, including coal mining, brick making, mechanical engineering and bleaching and dyeing were present in the 19th century. Since the deindustrialisation of the region in the mid-20th century, these industries have been replaced by newer sectors and industries.
During the 20th century, British Aerospace (formerly Avro, and now BAE Systems) had a major manufacturing plant in the town. It was one of the largest employers within the area, producing a number of aircraft models. During World War II, over half of the Avro Lancaster bombers were made at the Chadderton factory. Her Majesty's Stationery Office had a base in Chadderton.
Chadderton Mall is a shopping precinct located in the town centre, and is one of Chadderton's main concentrations of retailing. It was constructed in 1974, and opened in 1975. It includes an ASDA supermarket and a variety of smaller shops.
Chadderton Town Hall, in its present form, was the Chadderton's second town hall and was opened in 1913. The town hall now comprises registrars departments and civil cermonies take place here.
Chadderton Hall Park occupies an area of 6.47 hectares in what were once the gardens of Chadderton Hall, built in 1620. From 1839 to 1860 the hall and grounds were used as a boarding school for young ladies and later a school for boys. At the end of the 19th century they were leased to Joseph Ball, who transformed the house and grounds into a pleasure garden, complete with a boating lake and a menagerie. The hall was demolished in 1939. The park is owned today by Oldham Council and was opened to the public in 1956.
Foxdenton Park contains the restored Foxdenton Hall, built in 1700 on the site of an earlier hall. The park occupies an area of 5.26 hectares and was opened to the public in 1922.
Chadderton F.C. is a non-league football team playing in the North West Counties Football League Division Two. Boundary Park, located partly within Chadderton and partly within neighbouring Royton, is the home of Oldham Athletic A.F.C..
There are frequent buses running through Chadderton towards Oldham and Middleton (58, 59), and also frequent services to Manchester (24, 181, 182 plus peak time service 20). National Express coaches also serve Chadderton with coaches stopping on Broadway, at the junction of Middleton Road, mainly used for the 060 service to Liverpool via Manchester, and to Leeds.
Other destinations with direct bus connections from the centre of Chadderton include Ashton-under-Lyne, Rochdale, Royton, and Shaw. There is no railway station in the centre of Chadderton. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway branch from Middleton Junction to Werneth almost bisected the urban district, and there was a branch from this to a coal depot on Broadway, very close to Chadderton town centre, but no passenger station within Chadderton was ever provided on these lines. The nearest train stations are Mills Hill, to the west of Chadderton, where passengers can travel to Manchester, Rochdale, Halifax, Bradford and Leeds, and Oldham Werneth, to the east of Chadderton, where passengers can travel to Manchester, Oldham Mumps and Rochdale. Both stations are on the Oldham Loop Line line and the trains that serve these stations are operated by Northern Rail
The line from Manchester to Oldham via Werneth is planned for conversion to Metrolink, and as part of the rebuilding, Metrolink stations are planned for South Chadderton and Freehold.
In 1948 Chadderton-born scientist Geoff Tootill helped create the world's first wholly-electronic fully-programmable computer, affectionately named Baby.
Home Office policing in Chadderton is provided by the Greater Manchester Police. The force's "(Q) Division" have their headquarters for policing the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham at central Oldham. The nearest police station is at Royton. Public transport is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service.
There are no hospitals in Chadderton—the nearest are in the larger settlements of Oldham and Rochdale—but some local health care is provided by Chadderon Town and South Chadderton health centre which are the town's NHS surgeries. The North West Ambulance Service provides emergency patient transport in the area. Other forms of health care are provided for locally by several small specialist clinics and surgeries.
Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority via the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority. Locally produced inert waste for disposal is sent to landfill at the Beal Valley. Chadderton's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is United Utilities; Chadderton Power Station opened in 1955 and demolished in 1986; there are now no power stations in the town. United Utilities also manages Chadderton's drinking and waste water; water supplies being sourced from several local reservoirs, including Dovestones and Chew.