The telencephalon cerebrum
, or forebrain
is the most anterior
or, especially in humans, most dorsal
region of the vertebrate central nervous system
. "Telencephalon" refers to the embryonic structure, from which the mature "cerebrum" develops. The dorsal
telencephalon, or pallium
, develops into the cerebral cortex
, and the ventral
telencephalon, or subpallium
, becomes the basal ganglia
. The cerebrum is also divided into symmetric left and right cerebral hemispheres.
During vertebrate embryonic development, the prosencephalon
, the most anterior of three vesicles
that form from the embryonic neural tube
, is further subdivided into the telencephalon and diencephalon
. The telencephalon then forms two lateral telencephalic vesicles which develop into the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
The cerebrum is composed of the following sub-regions:
The cerebrum comprises what most people think of as the "brain
." It lies in front or on top of the brainstem
and in humans is the largest and most well-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum is the newest structure in the phylogenetic
sense, with mammals
having the largest and most well-developed among all species
. In larger mammals, the cerebral cortex is folded into many gyri and sulci, which has allowed the cortex to expand in surface area without taking up much greater volume. See also Cerebral Cortex
In humans, the cerebrum surrounds older parts of the brain. Limbic, olfactory, and motor systems project fibers from the cerebrum to the brainstem and spinal cord. Cognitive and volitive systems project fibers from the cerebrum to the thalamus and to specific regions of the midbrain. The neural networks of the cerebrum facilitate complex behaviors such as social interactions, learning, working memory, and in humans, speech and language.
: As the cerebrum is a gross division with many subdivisions and sub-regions, it is important to state that this section lists the functions that the cerebrum as a whole
serves. See main articles on cerebral cortex
and basal ganglia
for more information.
The cerebrum directs the conscious or volitional motor functions of the body. These functions originate within the primary motor cortex
and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are planned. Upper motor neurons
in the primary motor cortex send their axons
to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse
on the lower motor neurons
, which innervate the muscles. Damage to motor areas of cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease
. This kind of damage results in loss of muscular power and precision rather than total paralysis
The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
receive and process visual, auditory, somatosensory
, and olfactory
information. Together with association cortical areas, these brain regions synthesize sensory information into our perceptions of the world around us.
The olfactory bulb
in most vertebrates is the most anterior portion of the cerebrum, and makes up a relatively large proportion of the telencephalon. However, in humans, this part of the brain is much smaller, and lies underneath the frontal lobe. The olfactory sensory system is unique in the sense that neurons in the olfactory bulb send their axons directly to the olfactory cortex
, rather than to the thalamus
first. Damage to the olfactory bulb results in a loss of the sense of smell.
Language and communication
and language are mainly attributed to parts of the cerebral cortex. Motor portions of language are attributed to Broca's area
within the frontal lobe. Speech comprehension is attributed to Wernicke's area
, at the temporal-parietal lobe junction. These two regions are interconnected by a large white matter
tract, the arcuate fasciculus
. Damage to the Broca's area results in expressive aphasia
(non-fluent aphasia) while damage to Wernicke's area results in receptive aphasia
(also called fluent aphasia).
Learning and Memory
Explicit or declarative (factual) memory formation is attributed to the hippocampus
and associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. This association was originally described after a patient known as HM
had both his hippocampuses (left and right) surgically removed to treat severe epilepsy. After surgery, HM had anterograde amnesia
, or the inability to form new memories. This condition is also portrayed in the film Memento
, in which the protagonist has to take pictures of people he has met in order to be able to remember what to do in the days following his accident.
Implicit or procedural memory, such as complex motor behaviors, involve the basal ganglia. Therefore,
In a study of the telencephalon conducted in Hokkaido University
on African clawed frogs
), it was discovered that, during larval
stages, the telencephalon was able to regenerate around half of the anterior portion (otherwise known as partially truncated
), after a reconstruction of a would-be accident, or malformation of features.
The regeneration and active proliferation of cells within the clawed frog is quite remarkable, regenerated cells being almost functionally identical to the ones originally found in the brain after birth, despite the lack of brain matter for a sustained period of time.
This kind of regeneration depends on ependymal layer cells covering the cerebral lateral ventricles, within a short period before, or within the initial stage of wound-healing. This is observed within the stages of healing within larvae of the clawed frog.
The regeneration within the developed stage of the clawed frog is different from that in the larval stage. Because the cells adhere to one another, they are unable to form an entity that can cover the cerebral lateral ventricles. Thus, the telencephalon remains truncated and the loss of function becomes permanent.
Effects of abnormality
After removing over half of the telencephalon in the developed stage of the clawed frog, the lack of functions within the animal was apparent, manifesting with obvious difficulties in movement, nonverbal communication
between other species, as well as other difficulties thought to be similar to those seen in humans.
This kind of regeneration is still relatively unknown in regard to regeneration within larval stages, similar to the human fetal stage.
- Levi-Montalcini, R. (1949) Proliferation, differentiation and degeneration in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo under normal and experimental conditions. Pages 450 - 502
- Yoshino J, Tochinai S. Successful reconstitution of the non-regenerating adult telencephalon by cell transplantation in Xenopus laevis. Dev Growth Differ. 2004;46(6):523–34. PMID 15610142
- Yaginuma, H., Tomita, M., Takashita, N., McKay, S., Cardwell, C., Yin, Q.- Aminobuytric acid immunoreactivity within the human cerebral cortex. Pages 481 - 500
- Haydar, T. F, Kuan, C., Y., Flavell, R. A. & Rakic, P. (1999) The role of cell death in regulating the size and shape of the mammalian forebrain. Pages 621 - 626