Caulonia

Caulonia

[kou-law-nyah]
Caulonia (Kaulonia) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 60 km southwest of Catanzaro and about 70 km northeast of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 7,542 and an area of 100.7 km².

The municipality of Caulonia contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Crochi (Krokoi), S.Nicola (Aghios Nikolaos), Focà (Phocea), Campoli, Agromastelli (Agromastelloi), Ursini, and Cufò (Koufò).

Caulonia borders the following municipalities: Nardodipace, Pazzano, Placanica, Roccella Ionica, Stignano.

History

Caulonia was founded between the 7th and 8th Centuries B.C.E., with some historians dating the founding sometime around 722 B.C.E. It was first settled by Greek Achaean colonists as part of the Magna Graecia. For a time ruled by nearby Crotone, Caulonia became an independent city-state, minting its own coins. According to Thucydides, during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.), Caulonians supplied Athens with timber for ships. The store of timber at Caulonia was attacked and burned by forces from Syracuse. Beginning in 389 B.C.E., Caulonia was conquered and ruled by various groups. In 200 B.C.E., the town was completely destroyed by Romans when it sided with Hannibal during the Punic Wars. The Romans then gave the town the Latin name Castlevetere.

Caulonia was known as Castlevetere for nearly 2,000 years, until 1862, when the town regained the name Caulonia, following Italy's unification.

For five days in March 1945, with the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini overthrown, the town of Caulonia became the "Republic of Caulonia," led by an elementary school teacher named Pasquale Cavallaro.

Demographic evolution

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References

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