See D. S. Brown, The Catawba Indians (1966); C. M. Hudson, The Catawba Nation (1970).
North American Indian people of South Carolina, U.S. The meaning of the name Catawba, which seems to have been applied after European contact to several small bands of peoples in the region of the Catawba River, is unknown. The peoples first encountered by Hernando de Soto subsisted principally by farming and by harvesting corn, beans, squash, and gourds. Fish and birds were also staples of their diet. They traded bowls, baskets, and mats to other native groups and, later, to colonists. Each village was governed by a council presided over by a chief. After contact with European settlers, disease and other factors diminished their numbers rapidly. Catawba descendants numbered more than 2,500 in the early 21st century.
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According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles (6.1 km²), of which, 2.3 square miles (5.9 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (2.56%) is water.
There were 270 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 17.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the town the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 83.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $42,031, and the median income for a family was $42,083. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $21,645 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,933. About 8.2% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.6% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over.