Funk, Casimir, 1884-1967, American biochemist, b. Poland, Ph.D. Univ. of Bern, 1904. He first came to the United States in 1915 and was naturalized in 1920. Credited with the discovery of vitamins, Funk stirred public interest with his paper (1912) on vitamin-deficiency diseases. He coined the term vitamine and later postulated the existence of four such materials (B1, B2, C, D), which he stated were necessary for normal health and for the prevention of deficiency diseases. Funk contributed to knowledge of the hormones of the pituitary gland and the sex glands and emphasized the importance of the balance between hormones and vitamins. He is the author of Vitamines (tr. 1922).

See biography by B. Harrow (1955).

Malevich, Casimir or Kasimir, 1878-1935, Russian painter. Malevich worked first in a style related to fauvism and then as a cubist before he founded suprematism in 1913. He created nonobjective paintings composed of bare geometric forms—often just a single square on the flatly painted surface. Characteristic is his famous White on White (Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). His written theories were published in Germany in 1928 as The Non-Objective World (tr. 1959). His controversial work was influential in the development of abstract art. Officially praised after the 1917 revolution, from about 1930 on his work was condemned by Russia's Stalinist regime.
Pulaski, Casimir, Pol. Kazimierz Pułaski, c.1748-1779, Polish patriot and military commander in the American Revolution. Born in Podolia of a noble family, he participated with his father in forming (1768) the Confederation of Bar to oppose Russian influence in Poland. In the unsuccessful rebellion against the Russian-dominated king of Poland, Stanislaus II, he gained military fame. After the Confederation was suppressed by Russian troops, he escaped (1772) to Prussia and later to France. There he met Benjamin Franklin, who gave him a letter of recommendation to George Washington. Joining the Revolutionary cause in 1777, he served at Brandywine and Germantown. In 1778 he resigned a cavalry command rather than continue in service under Gen. Anthony Wayne, and he organized his own cavalry unit, the Pulaski Legion, which saw a great deal of service before Pulaski was mortally wounded while leading a cavalry charge in the attack on Savannah.

See biography by D. J. Abodaher (1969).

Delavigne, Casimir, 1793-1843, French dramatist, poet, and satirist. His first publication, a verse diatribe against the Restoration, Les Messéniennes (1818), brought him recognition. His successful plays included comedies, such as L'Ecole des vieillards (1823), and tragedies, such as Les Věpres siciliennes (1819) and Les Enfants d'Édouard (1833).
known as Casimir Jagiellonian Polish Kazimierz Jagiellończyk

(born Nov. 30, 1427—died June 7, 1492) Grand duke of Lithuania (1440–92) and king of Poland (1447–92). He became ruler of Lithuania by will of the boyars and king of Poland on his brother's death. He sought to preserve the political union between Poland and Lithuania and to recover the lost lands of old Poland. Through his own marriage to Elizabeth of Habsburg and the marriages of his children, he formed alliances with various European royal houses and built the Jagiellon dynasty. The great triumph of his reign was the effective destruction of the Teutonic Order (1466), which brought Prussia under Polish rule.

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known as Casimir the Great Polish Kazimierz Weilki

(born April 30, 1310, Kujavia, Pol.—died Nov. 5, 1370) King of Poland (1333–70). He was the son of Władysław I, who revived the Polish kingship, and he continued his father's quest to make Poland a power in central Europe. He crafted treaties with Hungary, Bohemia, and the Teutonic Order and acquired Red Russia and Masovia by diplomacy. Casimir also arranged a series of dynastic alliances that tied Poland to many royal European families. He codified Teutonic law, gave new towns self-government under the Magdeburg Law, and founded the University of Kraków.

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