Carr, Edward Hallett, 1892-1982, English political scientist and historian. Educated at Cambridge, he was in the diplomatic service until 1936, professor of international relations (1936-47) at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and assistant editor for the London Times (1941-46). Carr's writings include biographies of Feodor Dostoyevsky (1931), Karl Marx (1934), and Mikhail Bakunin (1937), as well as important studies on international relations and on the Soviet Union. His major works are a History of Soviet Russia (9 vol., 1950-71) and The Twenty Years Crisis 1919-1939 (1939).
Carr, Emily, 1871-1945, Canadian painter. She studied (1889-c.1895) at the San Francisco School of Art and later in London and in Paris. In Victoria, British Columbia, she taught painting and visited native villages. From her study of totem poles and other indigenous art, she developed a powerful style marked by simplified forms and a fauvist intensity of color. She wrote Klee Wyck (1941) and The House of All Sorts (1944).

See her autobiography, Growing Pains (1946).

Carr, Eugene Asa, 1830-1910, Union general in the U.S. Civil War, b. Concord, Erie co., N.Y., grad. West Point, 1850. In the Civil War he distinguished himself at Wilson's Creek (1861) and Pea Ridge (1862), was made (Mar., 1862) a brigadier general of volunteers, and fought in the campaigns at Vicksburg (1863) and Mobile (1865). After the war Carr was a well-known cavalry leader and Indian fighter in the West. Promoted to brigadier general in 1892, he was retired in 1893.

See biography by J. T. King (1963).

Carr, Robert: see Somerset, Robert Carr, earl of.

(1962) U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the Tennessee legislature to reapportion itself on the basis of population. The case ended the traditional overrepresentation of rural areas in the legislature and established that the court may intervene in apportionment cases. The court ruled that every citizen's vote should carry equal weight, regardless of the voter's place of residence. Its ruling in Reynolds v. Sims (1964) built on Baker by requiring virtually every state legislature to be reapportioned, ultimately causing political power in most states to shift from rural to urban areas.

Learn more about Baker v. Carr with a free trial on

Carr's is the name of foodstuff and agricultural brands historically derived from founder Jonathan Dodgson Carr but now owned and marketed by more than one separate company. In 1831, Carr formed a small bakery and biscuit factory in Carlisle; his company grew to include flour milling and he was heavily involved in the port of Silloth where his successor Henry Carr opened a flour mill in 1886.

Carr's is perhaps best known as a brand of English crackers or water biscuits.

Since 1972 the Carr's biscuit factory has been part of United Biscuits, marketed in USA by the Kellogg Company. The factory today is known officially as McVities but still known locally as Carr's.

Carr's Flour Mills and agricultural supplies business are owned by Carr's Milling Industries plc still based in Carlisle, and have recently appeared in UK supermarkets through their Carr's Breadmaker flour range. Carr's Milling Industries also own companies involved in light engineering.


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