carl o nicolai

Carl O. Nordling

Carl O. Nordling (1919 – February 15, 2007) was a Finnish born architect, urban planner and amateur historian. He graduated as an architect from the Helsinki University of Technology in 1939 and immigrated to Sweden after the end of the Continuation War in 1944.

As statistician, he applied statistical methods to a number of scientific problems and published a large number of articles, mainly in his native Swedish. His most notable work is in scientific disciplines outside his professional expertise. Internationally he is best known for the small number of papers he published in English language peer reviewed scientific journals.

In 1953, in a paper published in the British Journal of Cancer, he first proposed the multi-mutation theory on cancer, today generally known as Knudson hypothesis after Alfred G. Knudson's work from 1971.

His statistical analysis on the Holocaust, How Many Jews Died in the German Concentration Camps?, has been used by historical revisionists and Holocaust deniers.

In his later years he wrote mainly about issues in Nordic and Germanic history, contributing among other to the debate on Shakespeare's identity



  • Gåtorna kring Birger jarl, Ösel och Borgå: Omvärdering av historiska teorier rörande svensk östpolitik och finsk och estnisk kolonisation under tidig medeltid Faktainformation (1976) ISBN 978-9185494002
  • Den svenske Runeberg Ekenäs tryckeri aktiebolags förlag (1988) ISBN 978-9519001203



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