Cardigan

Cardigan

[kahr-di-guhn]
Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th earl of, 1797-1868, British general. In the Crimean War he led the disastrous cavalry charge at Balaklava (1854) that Tennyson immortalized in The Charge of the Light Brigade. The charge was made on a misunderstood order, and the brigade was destroyed. Quarrels with his officers showed him a vain and contentious man. The cardigan sweater was named for him.

See biography by P. Compton (1972).

(born Oct. 16, 1797, Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, Eng.—died March 27/28, 1868, Deene Park, Northamptonshire) British general. After entering the army (1824), he purchased promotions to become a lieutenant colonel (1832) and gained a reputation as a martinet. He spent his inherited wealth to make his regiment the best-dressed in the service (introducing the later-named cardigan jacket). At the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853), he was appointed commander of the Light Brigade of British cavalry, which he led in the ill-fated charge at the Battle of Balaklava. Despite the disaster, Cardigan was lionized on his return to England and appointed inspector general of cavalry.

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Cardigan (Aberteifi) is a town in the county of Ceredigion in West Wales. It lies on the estuary of the River Teifi at the point where Ceredigion meets Pembrokeshire. It was the county town of the pre-1974 county of Cardiganshire. The town's population was estimated at 4,000 inhabitants in 2007, though it is a significant regional administrative centre for West Wales, harbouring a hospital, college, a modern arts centre (with two-screen cinema) and a currently under-used nineteenth century guildhall together with a theatre and good shopping facilities. Cardigan is twinned with Brioude, France.

The town has recently (2006/2007) undergone a renaissance with a co-ordinated programme of building works restoring many of the facades of the town centre shops in a sympathetic style. The quayside has been rebuilt with a new civic area and landing stage.

History

The town was founded in 1093 by the Norman Roger de Montgomery. In the following century Rhys ap Gruffydd, the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth, made a number of attempts to wrest the town from the Normans, finally succeeding in 1165. The castle was rebuilt in stone by Rhys ap Gruffydd 1171. In 1176 first National Eisteddfod of Wales was held in the town. By the mid 13th century the town was in the hands of the Normans once again who enhanced the town defences by building a stone town wall. During the English Civil War, Cardigan Castle was attacked by the parliamentary forces.

Since the Early Middle Ages Cardigan has been a port. Throughout the Middle Ages it grew in importance until by Elizabethan times it was, after Milford Haven, the most important port in Wales. A small shipbuilding industry and allied trades like rope and sail making were established in the port in the 17th century. By the early 19th century over 300 sailing vessels giving employment to more than 1,000 men were registered at the port and more than 200 ships were built in the five shipyards. Cilgerran slate was exported from the port. The river silted up and the port died by the early part of the twentieth century. Plans to dredge it have come to nothing over the years.

Cardigan Castle

In 1176 Cardigan Castle became the site of the first competitive Eisteddfod. Cardigan also hosted the National Eisteddfod of Wales in 1942 and 1976. The castle was for many years in private hands and as a result became run down and derelict. The town council itself showed little interest in saving it. However a group of volunteers, and the local Catholic Priest, working separately did raise its profile. Ceredigion County Council finally bought it in 2003.

Welsh Language

Cardigan is predominantly a Welsh language speaking community. At the last census more than 70% of the residents were recorded as being able to speak or understand spoken Welsh with 48% able to speak, read and write in the language. In 1176 and again 800 years later the National Eisteddfod was held in the town. In 2003 the community together with the Welsh Language Board set up a language action plan designed to provide opportunities for people of all ages to get together to speak Welsh. The county council, Twf, Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin, the Urdd, Cardigan town council, the local Young Farmers, Menter Aberteifi and the Board are working together in pursuit of its objectives.

Shrine to Our Lady of Cardigan

Cardigan is also the site of Wales' premier Roman Catholic Shrine in Wales. In pre English Reformation times it was known for a statue of the Virgin Mary, who held a candle whose flame never extinguished. It is known as the shrine to Our Lady of the Taper.

Miscellanous

Cardigan Island lies just 200 metres offshore near the town at Gwbert.

Cardigan railway station was closed under the Beeching Axe in 1963.

The village of Moylegrove is nearby.

See also

External links

References

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