Cardiff Castle, the residence of the marquess of Bute until 1947, was first built in 1090 on the site of a Roman fort. Robert, duke of Normandy, was imprisoned (1126-34) in the castle. Owen Glendower partly destroyed it in 1404. In Cathays Park the group of public buildings includes the National Museum of Wales, the law courts, and the city hall. The Univ. of Wales, a federal university, has a constituent institution as well as its medical campus and the Univ. of Wales Institute in Cardiff. The former docklands of Cardiff Bay are now the site of the new Senedd (National Assembly) building and a multipurpose cultural center. The city also has a botanic garden. Llandaff, which has a notable medieval cathedral, has been incorporated in Cardiff since 1922. The parish church of St. John dates partly from the 13th and 15th cent., and the Museum of Welsh Life, on the city's outskirts, groups buildings from throughout Wales.
City and county (pop., 2001: 305,340), capital of Wales. It is located on the Bristol Channel in southeastern Wales. The Romans built a fort there circa AD 75. The town itself was established with the arrival of the Normans in the 11th century. Its population was small into the early 19th century, but by the early 20th century Cardiff had become the largest coal-exporting port in the world. The coal trade ceased in the 1960s, but Cardiff remains the largest city and the principal commercial centre of Wales.
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