Malawi has few exploitable mineral resources. Its two most important export crops are tobacco and tea. Tea was introduced in 1878. Most of it is grown in Mulanje and Thyolo. Traditionally Malawi has been self-sufficient in its staple food, maize (corn), and during the 1980s exported substantial quantities to its drought-stricken neighbors. Agriculture represents 36% of the GDP, accounts for over 80% of the labor force, and represents about 80% of all exports. Nearly 90% of the population engages in subsistence farming. Smallholder farmers produce a variety of crops, including maize, beans, rice, cassava, tobacco, and groundnuts (peanuts). Financial wealth is generally concentrated in the hands of a small elite. Malawi's manufacturing industries are situated around the city of Blantyre.
Malawi's economic reliance on the export of agricultural commodities renders it particularly vulnerable to external shocks such as declining terms of trade and drought. High transport costs, which can comprise over 30% of its total import bill, constitute a serious impediment to economic development and trade. Malawi must import all its fuel products. Paucity of skilled labor; difficulty in obtaining expatriate employment permits; bureaucratic red tape; corruption; and inadequate and deteriorating road, electricity, water, and telecommunications infrastructure further hinder economic development in Malawi. However, recent government initiatives targeting improvements in the road infrastructure, together with private sector participation in railroad and telecommunications, have begun to render the investment environment more attractive.
Malawi has undertaken economic structural adjustment programs supported by the World Bank (IBRD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other donors since 1981. Broad reform objectives include stimulation of private sector activity and participation through the elimination of price controls and industrial licensing, liberalization of trade and foreign exchange, rationalization of taxes, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and civil service reform. Malawi qualified for Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) debt relief and is in the process of refining its Poverty Reduction Strategy.
Real GDP grew by 3.6% in 1999 and 2.1% in 2000. The government's monetary policy has been expansionary, and the average annual inflation has hovered around 30% in 2000 and 2001, keeping discount and commercial bank rates high (the discount rate was 47% in December 2000). In the second half of 2001, the Kwacha strengthened sharply against the U.S. dollar, moving from 80 to 60.
Malawi has bilateral trade agreements with its two major trading partners, South Africa and Zimbabwe, both of which allow duty-free entry of Malawian products into their countries. The government faces challenges such as the improvement of Malawi's educational and health facilities--particularly important because of the rising rates of HIV/AIDS--and environmental problems like deforestation, erosion, and overworked soils.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.272 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
services: 45.1% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 53% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of Family Income-Gini Index 39 (2004)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 4.5 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and services 10% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
revenues: $1.016 billion
expenditures: $1.097 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public Debt 39.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production: 1.397 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.39%
other: 0% (1998)
Electricity - consumption: 1.299 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2005)
Oil Production 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil Consumption 5,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports: $560.3 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - partners: South Africa 12.6%, Germany 9.7%, Egypt 9.6%, US 9.5%, Zimbabwe 8.5%, Russia 5.4%, Netherlands 4.4% (2006)
Imports: $832 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partners: South Africa 34.6%, India 8.1%, Zambia 7.8%, US 6.4%, Tanzania 5.8%, Germany 4.6%, China 4.3% (2006)
Current Account Balance -$209 million (2006 est.)
Debt - external: $468 million (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $575.3 million (2005)
Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala
Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas per US dollar - 135.96 (2006), 108.894 (2005), 108.898 (2004), 97.433 (2003), 76.687 (2002)
MALAWI 2005: MAKE POVERTY HISTORY: Women Walk 80km Just to Give Birth in Clinic Staffed by Scottish Midwives. and People Queue Up for Free Medicine; JACK PLEDGES TO FUND LIFE-SAVING VOLUNTEERS
May 25, 2005; Byline: By SIOBHAN McFADYEN HEAVILY pregnant, Jessie Chapudula walked for three days from her home to the nearest maternity...