canis lupus

Subspecies of Canis lupus

Canis lupus has 39 subspecies currently described, including two subspecies of domestic dog, Canis lupus dingo and Canis lupus familiaris, and many subspecies of wolf throughout the northern hemisphere. The nominative subspecies is Canis lupus lupus.

Biological taxonomy is not fixed, and placement of taxa is reviewed as a result of new research. The current categorization of subspecies of Canis lupus is shown below. Also included are synonyms, which are now-discarded duplicate or incorrect namings. Common names are given but may vary, as they have no set meaning.

Canis lupus subspecies as of 2005
Subspecies Author Common Name
Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Grey Wolf
Canis lupus albus Kerr, 1792 Tundra Wolf, Turukhan Wolf, Arctic Wolf, White Wolf (Finland to eastern Russia)
Canis lupus alces Goldman, 1941 Kenai (Alaska) Peninsula Wolf, extinct by 1925
Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934 Arabian Wolf (Saudi Arabia)
Canis lupus arctos Pocock, 1935 Arctic Wolf, White Wolf, Polar Wolf (Northern Canada, Greenland)
Canis lupus baileyi Nelson and Goldman, 1929 Mexican Wolf (central Mexico to southwestern United States)
Canis lupus beothucus G. M. Allen and Barbour, 1937 Newfoundland Wolf (Newfoundland, Canada) (extinct)
Canis lupus bernardi Anderson, 1943 Bernard's Wolf (Arctic)
Canis lupus campestris Dwigubski, 1804 Steppe Wolf (Central Asia)
Canis lupus chanco Gray, 1863 Tibetan wolf, Himalayan wolf, Chinese wolf
Canis lupus columbianus Goldman, 1941 British Columbia Wolf (Western Canada) (extinct)
Canis lupus crassodon Hall, 1932 Vancouver Island Wolf (Canada)
Canis lupus dingo Meyer, 1793 Dingo, wild dog of Australia and South-east Asia: dingo and familiaris provisionally separate, 2003
Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 Domestic dog

Canis lupus floridanus Miller, 1912
Canis lupus fuscus Richardson, 1839 Cascade Mountain Wolf (Cascade Mountains, Canada and United States)
Canis lupus gregoryi Goldman, 1937
Canis lupus griseoalbus Baird, 1858; syn. knightii (Anderson, 1945) Manitoba Wolf (Central Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan, Canada) (extinct)
Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931 Kishida Wolf (Japan) (extinct)
Canis lupus hodophilax Temminck, 1839 Honshū Wolf (Honshū Islands, Japan) (extinct)
Canis lupus hudsonicus Goldman, 1941 Hudson Bay Wolf, Tundra Wolf (Alaska and Canada)
Canis lupus irremotus Goldman, 1937 Northern Rocky Mountains Wolf (Rocky Mountains, United States and Canada)
Canis lupus italicus European Mammal Assessment, 1999 Italian Wolf (Italian peninsula)
Canis lupus labradorius Goldman, 1937 Labrador Wolf (Northern Quebec and Labrador, Canada)
Canis lupus ligoni Goldman, 1937 Alexander Archipelago Wolf (Alexander Archipelago Islands in the Arctic)
Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775 Eastern North America Timber Wolf
Canis lupus mackenzii Anderson, 1943 Mackenzie Tundra Wolf (Mackenzie River drainage, Canada)
Canis lupus manningi Anderson, 1943 Baffin Island Wolf (Baffin Island, Canada)
Canis lupus mogollonensis Goldman, 1937 Mogollon Mountain Wolf (Mogollon, New Mexico, southwest United States) (extinct)
Canis lupus monstrabilis Goldman, 1937; syn. niger (Bartram, 1791) Texas Wolf (Texas, US and northern Mexico) (extinct, 1942)
Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823 Great Plains Wolf (Central North America)
Canis lupus occidentalis Richardson, 1829 Rocky Mountain Wolf (Canada, US)
Canis lupus orion Pocock, 1935
Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831 Iranian Wolf (Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India)
Canis lupus pambasileus Elliot, 1905
Canis lupus rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851 Red Wolf (Perhaps a hybrid, status uncertain)
Canis lupus signatus European Mammal Assessment, 1999 Iberian Wolf (Northwestern Spain and northern Portugal)
Canis lupus tundrarum Miller, 1912 Alaskan Tundra Wolf (northeastern Alaska, USA), heavier dentition than pambasileus
Canis lupus youngi Goldman, 1937


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