Definitions

campanula divaricata

Campanula

[kam-pan-yuh-luh]
For the main belt asteroid, see 1077 Campanula. The hydrozoan genus Campanula is usually included in Campanularia today.

Campanula (Cam-pá-nu-la) is one of several genera of in the family Campanulaceae with the common name bellflower. It takes its name from their bell-shaped flowerscampanula is Latin for "little bell".

The genus includes about 300 species and several subspecies, distributed across the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest diversity in the Mediterranean region east to the Caucasus.

The species include annual, biennial and perennial plants, and vary in habit from dwarf arctic and alpine species under 5 cm high, to large temperate grassland and woodland species growing to 2 m tall.

The leaves are alternate, sessile, and often vary in shape on a single plant, with larger, broader leaves at the base of the stem and smaller, narrower leaves higher up; the leaf margin may be either entire or serrated (sometimes both on the same plant). Many species contain white latex in the leaves and stems. The flowers are produced in panicles (sometimes solitary), and have a bell-shaped, five-lobed corolla, typically large (2-5 cm or more long), mostly blue to purple, sometimes white or pink. The fruit is a capsule containing numerous small seeds.

Well-known species include the northern European Campanula rotundifolia, commonly known as Harebell in England and Bluebell in Scotland, and the southern European Campanula medium, commonly known as Canterbury Bells, which is a cultivated garden plant in the United Kingdom. As well as several species occurring naturally in the wild in northern Europe, there are many cultivated garden species. The species Campanula rapunculus, commonly known as Rampion Bellflower, Rampion, or Rover Bellflower, is an annual vegetable and a popular garden plant, though sometimes considered too invasive. There are blue, purple and white varieties. The Brothers Grimm's tale Rapunzel gave its name to this plant.

Campanula species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Common Pug (recorded on Harebell), Dot Moth, Ingrailed Clay (recorded on Harebell), Lime-speck Pug and Mouse Moth.Selected species

Campanula abietina
Campanula adsurgens
Campanula affinis
Campanula alliariifolia
Campanula alpestris
Campanula alpina
Campanula alsinoides
Campanula americana
Campanula aparinoides - Marsh bellflower
Campanula ardonensis
Campanula argyrotricha
Campanula arvatica
Campanula aucheri
Campanula autraniana
Campanula barbata - Bearded bellflower
Campanula baumgartenii
Campanula beauverdiana
Campanula bellidifolia
Campanula betulifolia
Campanula bononiensis
Campanula caespitosa
Campanula calaminthifolia
Campanula californica
Campanula carpatica - Carpathian harebell
Campanula cashmeriana
Campanula celsii
Campanula cenisia
Campanula cervicaria
Campanula chamissonis
Campanula cochleariifolia - Fairies' thimble
Campanula collina
Campanula colorata
Campanula crenulata
Campanula dichotoma
Campanula divaricata
Campanula elatines
Campanula elegans
Campanula ephesia
Campanula erinus
Campanula excisa
Campanula exigua - Chaparral bellflower
Campanula filicaulis
Campanula formanekiana
Campanula fragilis
Campanula gansuensis
Campanula garganica - Adriatic bellflower
Campanula gelida
Campanula glomerata - Clustered bellflower
Campanula grossekii
Campanula hemschinica
Campanula hercegovina
Campanula heterophylla
Campanula imeretina
Campanula incurva
Campanula isophylla - Italian bellflower
Campanula jacobaea
Campanula kachethica
Campanula kantschavelii
Campanula kemulariae
Campanula khasiana
Campanula kolenatiana
Campanula komarovii
Campanula laciniata
Campanula lactiflora - Milky bellflower
Campanula lanata
Campanula lasiocarpa
Campanula latifolia - Giant bellflower
Campanula latiloba
Campanula lingulata
Campanula linifolia
Campanula longistyla
Campanula lusitanica
Campanula lyrata
Campanula macrorhiza
Campanula macrostyla
Campanula makaschvilii
Campanula medium - Canterbury bells
Campanula michauxioides
Campanula mirabilis
Campanula moesiaca
Campanula mollis
Campanula morettiana
Campanula oblongifolia
Campanula ochroleuca
Campanula olympica
Campanula orbelica
Campanula oreadum
Campanula orphanidea
Campanula parryi
Campanula patula - Spreading bellflower
Campanula pelviformis
Campanula peregrina
Campanula persicifolia - Peach-leaved bellflower
Campanula petraea
Campanula petrophila
Campanula phrygia
Campanula phyctidocalyx
Campanula piperi
Campanula portenschlagiana - Wall bellflower
Campanula poscharskyana - Serbian bellflower
Campanula prenanthoides
Campanula primulifolia
Campanula pulla
Campanula punctata
Campanula pyramidalis - Chimney bellflower
Campanula raddeana
Campanula raineri
Campanula ramosissima
Campanula rapunculoides - Creeping bellflower
Campanula rapunculus - Rampion bellflower
Campanula reiseri
Campanula reuteriana
Campanula rhomboidalis
Campanula rotundifolia - Harebell
Campanula rupestris
Campanula sarmatica
Campanula sartorii
Campanula saxatilis
Campanula saxifraga
Campanula scabrella
Campanula scouleri
Campanula sibirica
Campanula spicata
Campanula spruneriana
Campanula stevenii
Campanula stricta
Campanula strigosa
Campanula teucrioides
Campanula takesimana - Korean bellflower
Campanula thessela
Campanula thrysoides
Campanula tomentosa
Campanula tommasiniana
Campanula trachelium - Nettle-leaved bellflower
Campanula trautvetteri
Campanula tridentata
Campanula uniflora
Campanula versicolor
Campanula vidalii
Campanula violae
Campanula waldsteiniana
Campanula zoysii

References and external links

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Campanula was the name of one of Fiore's three flowers in the Sailor Moon R movie.

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