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# change ringing

Traditional English art of ringing tower or hand bells in a succession of different orders. Groups of swinging bells in English church towers date from the 10th century. Control of bell ringing was much enhanced with the invention of the bell wheel in the 14th century; further improvements in bearings and fittings allowed the bells to swing at the same speed and led to recognizably modern change ringing by the 17th century. A “ring” (set) of 6 bells can be tolled in 720 different “changes” (orders); 8 bells allow 40,320 different changes, and 10 bells allow more than 3,000,000. In practice, only a selection of the possible changes is rung, derived by a “method” (a shuffling algorithm), usually involving switching pairs of bells in a certain order (e.g., 123456 becomes 214365, which can then become 241635, etc.). “Rounds”—all the bells in order from highest to lowest—is rung before and after a method is completed.

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Campanology (from late Latin campana, "bell"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the study of bells. It encompasses the physical realities of bells — how they are cast, tuned and sounded — as well as the various methods devised to perform bell-ringing.

In particular, it is common to collect together a set of tuned bells and treat the whole as one musical instrument. Such collections — such as a Flemish carillon, a Russian zvon, or a British "ring of bells" used for change ringing — have their own practices and challenges; and campanology is likewise the study of perfecting such instruments, composing music for them, and performing it.

In this sense, however, the word "campanology" is most often used in reference to relatively large bells, often hung in a tower. It is not usually applied to assemblages of smaller bells, such as a glockenspiel, a collection of tubular bells, or an Indonesian gamelan.

## Carillons

The carillon is a complex instrument that has been studied and minutely improved for highest musical quality. It draws both tourists and locals to the concerts and recitals. Professional campanologists like Jef Denyn had, and still have world fame.

The instrument is played sitting on a bench by hitting the top keyboard that allows expression through variation of touch, with the underside of the half-clenched fists, and the bottom keyboard with the feet, since the lower notes in particular require more physical strength than an organ, the latter not attaining the tonal range of the better carillons: for some of these, their bell producing the lowest tone, the 'bourdon', may weigh well over 8 tonnes; other fine ones settle for 5 to 6 tonnes. A carillon renders at least two octaves for which it needs 23 bells, though the finest have 47 to 56 bells or extravagantly even more, arranged in chromatic sequence, so tuned as to produce concordant harmony when many bells are sounded together.

The oldest are found in church towers in continental northern Europe, especially in cathedral towers in northern France and Belgium, where some (like the St. Rumbolds Tower in Mechelen, the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp) became UNESCO World Heritage Sites – classified, rather misleadingly, with the Belfry of Bruges and its municipal Carillon under 'Belfries of Belgium and France'.
The carillon of Kirk in the Hills, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, United States, has the highest number of bells in the world: 77.
Modern large carillon edifices have been erected as stand-alone instruments across the world, for instance the Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetery.

## Chimes

A carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime. American chimes usually have one to one and a half diatonic octaves. Many chimes play an automated piece of music. Chime bells generally used to lack dynamic variation and inner tuning, or the mathematical balance of a bell's complex sound, to permit use of harmony. Since the 20th century, in Belgium and The Netherlands, clock chime bells have inner tuning and produce complex fully harmonized music.

The here described chimes, often singular chime, should neither be confounded with another musical instrument called chimes or tubular bells, nor with a wind chime.

## Russian Orthodox bells

The bells in Russian tradition are sounded by their clappers, attached to ropes; a special system of ropes is developed individually for every belltower. All the ropes are gathered in one place, where the bell-ringer stands. The ropes (usually - all ropes) are not pulled, but rather pressed with hands or legs. Since one end of every rope is fixed, and the ropes are kept in tension, a press or even a punch on a rope makes a clapper move.

The Russian Tsar Bell is the largest extant bell in the world.

## Change ringing

In England the bells in church towers are generally hung for full circle ringing: every bell swings through a complete circle (actually a little more than 360 degrees) each time it sounds. Between strokes, it sits poised 'upside-down', with the mouth pointed upwards; pulling on a rope connected to the bell swings it down and its own momentum swings it back up again on the other side.

These rings of bells have relatively few bells, compared with a carillon; six or eight-bell towers are common, with the largest rings in numbering up to sixteen bells. The bells are usually tuned to fall in a diatonic scale without chromatic notes; they are traditionally numbered from the top downwards so that the highest bell (called the treble) is numbered 1 and the lowest bell (the tenor) has the highest number; it is usually the tonic note of the bells' scale.

To swing the heavy bells requires a ringer for each bell. Furthermore, the great inertias involved mean that the ringers have only a limited ability to retard or accelerate their bells' cycle. Along with the relatively limited palette of notes available, the upshot is that such rings of bells do not easily lend themselves to ringing melodies.

Instead, a system of change ringing evolved which centres on mathematical permutations. The ringers begin with rounds, which is simply ringing down the scale in order. (On six bells this would be 123456.) The ringing then proceeds in a series of rows or changes, each of which is some permutation of rounds (for example 214356).

In call change ringing, one of the ringers (known as the conductor) calls out to tell the other ringers how to vary their order from row to row. Some ringers practice call changes exclusively; but for others, the essence of change ringing is method ringing.

### Method ringing

In method or scientific ringing each ringer has memorized a pattern describing his or her bell's course from row to row; taken together, these patterns (along with only occasional calls made by a conductor) form an algorithm which cycles through the various available permutations.

Serious ringing always starts and ends with rounds; and it must always be true — each row must be unique, never repeated. A performance of a few hundred rows or so is called a touch; approximately five thousand rows make a peal (which takes about three hours to ring). A performance of all the possible permutations possible on a set of bells is called an extent; with $n$ bells there are $n$! possible permutations. Since 7!=5040, an extent on seven bells is a peal; 8!=40,320 and an extent on eight bells has only been accomplished once, taking nearly nineteen hours.

Ringing in English belltowers become a popular hobby in the late 17th century, in the Restoration era; the scientific approach which led to modern method ringing can be traced to two books of that era, Tintinnalogia or the Art of Ringing (published in 1668 by Richard Duckworth and Fabian Stedman) and Campanalogia (also by Stedman; first released 1677; see Bibliography). Today change ringing remains most popular in England but is practiced worldwide; over four thousand peals are rung each year.

Dorothy Sayers' mystery story, "The Nine Tailors" (1934) centers around change ringing of bells in a church in Essex.

## Gamelan

Perhaps the best-known example from outside Europe of an organized system of bells is the gamelan, an Indonesian orchestra-like ensemble in which a prominent part is played by a variety of tuned bells, gongs, and metallophones.

## Other types of ringing

• Handbell ringing - You can play methods or songs on handbells - commonly used to sing Christmas carols to.
• Sales - Some sales companies ring a bell to celebrate reaching a sales quota.
• Carillon

## Bibliography

• Duckworth, R. and Stedman, F. (1970) [1668] Tintinnalogia; or, The art of ringing, 1st ed. reprinted, Bath : Kingsmead Reprints, ISBN 0-901571-41-5
• Stedman, F. (1990) [1677] Campanalogia : or The art of ringing improved ..., facsimile of 1st ed., Kettering : C. Groome, ISBN 1-85580-001-2

• General

* Bell Facts: Tools of Communication – Instruments of Music – Objects of Art

• Carillons

* World Carillon Federation
* The Carillon as a Musical Instrument, on the Web site of The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America (GCNA)

• Chimes

* Chimes and knells rung in traditional music from County of Nice, France
* List of chimes in North America

• Russian Orthodox bells

* A collection of mp3 recordings of Russian Orthodox bells

• British bells

* St Mark's Cheltenham bells link from church site
* Landmarks in the history of the society of College Youths, overview of historical data on bell-ringing
* The Craft of Bellringing DVD documentary about change ringing
* Tintinnalogia, or, the Art of Ringing by Richard Duckworth, Fabian Stedman (1671), from Project Gutenberg
* Standard Methods in the Art of Change Ringing, by Jasper Snowdon, an essay by Dr. J. C. Eisel, member and steward of the library of The Central Council of Church Bell Ringers, UK
* Change Ringing Resources by Roger Bailey
* Central Council of Church Bell Ringers
* The Ringing World magazine

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