Lejeune, Camp: see Jacksonville, N.C.
Camp, Walter Chauncey, 1859-1925, American athlete, football coach, administrator, b. New Britain, Conn. In his three years as captain at Yale Univ. in the 1880s, Camp shaped the rules that transformed rugby football into American football, including playing with 11 men, using a line of scrimmage, a system of downs, and the present point system. Until 1910 Camp continued at Yale as an unpaid advisory coach. Often called the father of American football, he was a prolific writer and promoter for the sport and from 1889 until 1925 selected its All-American teams. He wrote more than 30 books on football and physical fitness.
Pendleton, Camp: see Oceanside, Calif.

Internment centre established by a government to confine political prisoners or members of national or minority groups for reasons of state security, exploitation, or punishment. The prisoners are usually selected by executive decree or military order. Camps are usually built to house many people, typically in highly crowded conditions. Countries that have used such camps include Britain during the South African War, the Soviet Union (see Gulag), the U.S. (see Manzanar Relocation Center), and Japan, which interned Dutch civilians in the Dutch East Indies during World War II. A variation, called a “reeducation camp,” was used in Vietnam after 1975 and in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. Most notorious were the death camps of Nazi Germany, including Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Treblinka.

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Officer on the personal staff of a general, admiral, or other high-ranking commander who acts as a confidential secretary. Today they are usually of junior rank, and their duties are largely social. The term also denotes a high-ranking military officer who acts as an aide to a chief of state.

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Rural retreat of U.S. presidents, northern Maryland. The scenic mountainous area (200 acres, or 81 hectares) was established as “Shangri-La” in 1942 by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt and made an official presidential retreat by Harry Truman in 1945. In 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower renamed it Camp David for his grandson. It has been the scene of a number of high-level presidential conferences with foreign heads of state. Seealso Camp David Accords.

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