Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula CaS. This white material crystallizes in cubes like rock salt. CaS has been studied as a component in a process that would recycle gypsum, a product of flue gas desulfurization. Like many salts containing sulfide ions, CaS typically has an odour of H2S, which results from small amount of this gas formed by hydrolysis of the salt.
In terms of its atomic structure, CaS crystallizes in the same motif as sodium chloride indicating that the bonding in this material is highly ionic. The high melting point is also consistent with its description as an ionic solid. In the crystal, each S2− ion is surrounded by an octahedron of six Ca2+ ions, and complementarily, each Ca2+ ion surrounded by six S2− ions.
Production and uses
CaS is produced by "carbothermic reduction" of calcium sulfate
, which entails the conversion of carbon, usually as charcoal, to carbon dioxide
- CaSO4 + 2 C → CaS + 2 CO2
and can react further:
- 3 CaSO4 + CaS → 4 CaO + 4 SO2
Reactivity and uses
Calcium sulfide decomposes upon contact with water, including moist air, giving a mixture of Ca(SH)2
, and Ca(SH)(OH).
- CaS + H2O → Ca(SH)(OH) + H2S
- Ca(SH)(OH) + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2S
Milk of lime, Ca(OH)2, reacts with elemental sulfur to give a "lime-sulfur", which has been used as an insecticide. The active ingredient is probably a calcium polysulfide, not CaS.
Calcium sulfide is used in homeopathy.
Oldhamite is the name for mineralogical form of CaS. It is a rare component of some meteorites and has scientific importance in solar nebula research. Burning of the coal dumps can also produce such compound.