Breed of terrier developed in Scotland to rout animals that prey on game. The modern breed's characteristics are carefully patterned on those of the dog's ancestor, a 17th-century terrier of the Isle of Skye. This short-legged dog has a short, broad face. Its coarse coat is usually bluish gray, tan, or pale yellowish brown. Generally active, hardy, alert, and spirited, it is valued as a pet and watchdog. It stands 9–10 in. (23–25.5 cm) high and weighs about 13–14 lbs (6–6.5 kg).
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The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs, used for hunting burrowing prey among the cairns.
Although the breed had existed long before, the name Cairn Terrier was a compromise suggestion after the breed was originally brought to official shows in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the name Short-haired Skye terriers. This name was not acceptable to The Kennel Club due to opposition from Skye Terrier breeders and the name Cairn Terrier was suggested as an alternative. The Cairn Terrier quickly became popular and has remained so ever since.
|Cairn Terrier physique|
|Weight:||14-18 pounds (6-8 kg)|
|Height:||10-13 inches (25-33 cm)|
|Coat:||Abundant shaggy outer coat, soft downy undercoat|
|Life span:||12-15 years|
The breed standard can be found on the Cairn Terrier Club of America website. The current standard was approved on May 10, 1938 and it was adopted from the The Kennel Club of Great Britain According to the American standard, dogs should weigh 14 pounds and stand 10" at the withers. Females should weigh 13 pounds and stand 9.5" at the withers. A Cairn's appearance may vary from this standard. It is common for a Cairn to stand between 9 and 13 inches (23-33 cm) at the withers and weigh 13 to 18 pounds (6 to 8 kg). European Cairns tend to be larger than American Cairns. Due to irresponsible breeding, many Cairns available today are much smaller or much larger than the breed standard. Cairns that have had puppy mill backgrounds can weigh as little as 7 pounds or as much as 27 pounds.
The Cairn Terrier has a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colors. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917 the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change color throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration.
Cairns are working dogs and are still used as such in parts of Scotland. Cairn Terriers generally adapt well to children and are suitable family dogs.
Some of the more common hereditary health problems found in the Cairn are:
Currently, the Cairn Terrier Club of America along with the Institute for Genetic Disease Control in Animals maintain an open registry for Cairn Terriers in hopes of reducing the occurrence of hereditary diseases within the breed. Breeders voluntarily submit their dogs' test results for research purpose, as well as for use by individuals who seek to make sound breeding decisions.
1. 1852 The Dog Youatt describes Scotch Terrier
2. A Bonnie Fechter excerpt Ishbel Marjoribanks Childhood 'Cairns'
3. c 1865 A Summer in Skye
4. Jan. 31, 1879 The Terrier From The North
5. Nov. 1885 Harper's Magazine Robert D. Somers /An Otter Hunt In the Hebrides
6. Oct. 1907 Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Working Terriers - preCairn date of publication
7. 1909 THE DOG BOOK: [The Terrier, The Dandie, The Skye, The Scottish] JAMES WATSON
8. Aug. 14, 1909 Country Life UK Letter to the Editor by Ishbel Aberdeen
9. Aug. 14 1909 Campbell, J. A. Country Life UK
10. 1910 Dogs and All About Them Robert Leighton
11. Country Life in America Mrs. Williams-Campbell/Article Titled Cairn Terrier
12. Feb. 1915 Country Life in America James Watson/The Terriers of Scotland
13. Nov. 1917 VANITY FAIR CLEVELAND, REGINALD MCINTOSH
14. Mar. 1918 Country Life in America Dyer/The Terriers of Scotland
15. Jul. 1920 Country Life Hon. Douglas H. Cairns/Article Titled Cairns
16. 1920's (date unknown: 20's-30's?) The True Cairn Terrier Kate L. Stephen
17. 1920's Anatomy and Its Influence W. L. McCandlish
18. 1922 Cairns and Sealyham Terriers Mrs Byron Rogers [photos]
19. Sept. 1922 Country Life (London) A. Croxton Smith/The Terriers of Scotland
20. Mar. 1924 The Complete Book of the Dog Robert Leighton
21. Jun. 1924 Country Life in America Eva H. Turnbull/The Canny Cairn
22. 1928 The Scottish Terrier Dorothy Gabriel/A Book with a Chapter on Cairns by Kate L. Stephen
23. circa 2800 Burton in Beynon The Popular Cairn Terrier (an excerpt)
24. Mar. 1928 et seq. AKC Gazette Scottish Dogs in Song and Story Part III Freeman Lloyd
25. Aug. 1928 AKC Gazette Arthur Fredrick Jones/How a Sky-Line Kennel Makes Good (Tapscot Kennel)
26. Apr. 1929 AKC Gazette Arthur Frederick Jones/Cairmore Blazed a Trail
27. Jun. 1929 AKC Gazette F Lloyd [Non Cairn] Freeman Lloyd Some Dogs I Knew In My Youth
28. Jun. 5, 1931 Theo. Marples Bio
29. Jan. 1933 AKC Gazette Win or Lose, It's a Great Game Elizabeth H. Anderson
30. Jun. 1933 AKC Gazette C. Brewster Macpherson/Cairns Are Working Terriers
31. Oct. 1934 AKC Gazette [Mrs. Byron] (Alice [Lang]) Rogers and Corinne S. W. Ward/Why We Needed a New Standard
32. 1935 Hutchinson's Dog Encyclopedia
33. Dec. 1935 Our Dogs T. W. L. Caspersz/The Evolution of the Cairn
34. Dec. 13, 1935 Our Dogs Knight-Bruce
35. Feb. 1936 National Geographic Magazine Lloyd Freeman Lloyd Discusses the Cairn Terrier
36. Nov. 1, 1936 Jones, Frederick Arthur. Cairndania Wants Its Fnest Dogs Of The Show Ring To Be True Pals AKC Gazette November 1, 1936
37. 1937 Ross The Cairn Terrier Ch 5 Interbreeding of Cairns and West Highland White Terriers
38. 1937 Highland ponies, and some reminiscences of Highlandmen by John M. Macdonald
39. May 1938 AKC Gaz Pinefair Believes Arthur Frederick Jones
40. Sept. 1938 AKC Gazette FP/Breed Column Quotes 'Recent' Issue of Our Dogs
41. May 1939 AKC Gazette Arthur Frederick Jones/Noted Cairndania Danes and Cairns
42. May 1940 AKC Gazette FP/Comments of Theo. Marples
43. 1949 Kennel Encyclopedia entry for Cairn Terrier [See Photo Section.]
44. 1952 Naperville Sun Grace Newcomb
45. Apr. 1954 AKC Gazette CWH/Comments of Betty Hyslop on Trip to UK and the Purchase of Redletter McRuffie
46. Mar. 1956 AKC Gazette CWH/Comments of Miss Frances Porter
47. Dec. 1956 AKC Gazette FP/Comments of Miss Frances Porter on Early History
48. Nov. 1958 AKC Gazette LSC/Comments of Carl Brewer on the AKC Breed Standard
49. Nov. 1959 AKC Gazette LCH/Comments of Mrs. Drummond of Blencathra
50. Jan. 1963 AKC Gazette LCH/Comments of Lydia Coleman Hutchinson on "Living Legend Breeders" 51. Mar. 22, 1968 Bradshaw Dog World Revision and the "Motherless lamb"
52. Apr. 4, 1968 Dog World F Hamilton on Fault Judging
53. Apr. 19, 1968 Bradshaw Quotes Whitehead 1936 Comments
54. Apr. 26, 1968 Dog World /Bradshaw/Comments on CTCA Proposed Revisions
55. May 31, 1968 Dog World/Whitehead Obituary
56. Jul. 1968 AKC Gazette GAJ/Comments of Bradshaw, Whitehead and F. Hamilton on Proposed Revision of the Am Standard
57. Sept. 1970 AKC Gazette GAJ/Comments of Walter Bradshaw in Reply to M. Jennings of England
58. May 1972 AKC Gazette GAJ/Comments of Mr. A.K.M. Meiklejohn of Cornton Cairns
59. Feb. 1976 Thistle Talk Brown, Thelma/Proper Movement in Short-legged Terriers
60. Jul. 1976 AKC Gazette July 1976 TC/Comments of Taylor Coleman on the First Days of Wolfpit, i.e.,Jan. 1939
61. 1982 Proudlock, Hyslop, Henderson et al. gleanings on Redletter's Influence
62. Jul. 9, 1982 Wilson Bradshaw Rose Dog World Peggy Wilson tribute to Bradshaw; Quotes Rose
63. Mar. 1984 Dogs Monthly Proudlock "The History of the Cairn Terrier" with Proudlock C.V.
64. Mar. 1988 AKC Gazette A History of Scotland's Smallest Terrier
65. Dec. 1994 AKC Gazette Earthdog
66. Aug. 1998 A Winning Way Hyslop
67. Cairn Terriers at the Westminster KC Dog Show ~ Best of Breed and Group Winners 1914 - 2004
68. 2005 Spring Cairn Capers Sean Albert Breeding the Old Working Terrier of Skye and the West Highlands, Now Known as the Cairn Terrier
69. 2005 Summer Ryan Cooke What is a Cairn (Geologically Speaking)
70. 2005 Summer Cairn Capers Fred Lanting Earthdogs - Size and Proportion
71. Jun. 2005 Brace Yourself Andrew Brace on McCandlishHighly Recommended But Not Available for Republication:
Peggy Wilson, "The Modern Cairn?," CAIRN 85: an illustrated souvenir publication donated to the South Wales & West of England Cairn Terrier Club, ed. Graham Peers, (UK: Privately Published, 1986[?]): 45-46.
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Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1961). The Popular Cairn Terrier 3d ed. rev. London, Popular Dogs. Accession No: OCLC: 1432158.
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1969). The Cairn Terrier 4th ed. rev. London, Popular Dogs. ISBN 0090614526. [Previous editions published under title: The Popular Cairn Terrier.]
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1970). The Cairn Terrier Rev. ed. New York: Arco. Accession No: OCLC: 8025355.
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1974). The Cairn Terrier Rev. ed. New York : Arco. Accession No: OCLC: 1654828.
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1974). The Cairn Terrier 5th ed. New York: Arco Pub. Co. Accession No: OCLC: 1168868.
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. [revised by Wilson, P.] (1974). The Cairn Terrier 5th ed. London: Popular Dogs Pub. Co. Accession No: OCLC: 1559851.
Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. [revised by Wilson, P.]. (1977). The Cairn Terrier 6th ed. London : Popular Dogs Pub. Co. ISBN 0091293405.
Beynon, J. W. H., Fisher, A., Wilson, P. & Proudlock, D. (1988). The Terrier. Place of Publication Unknown: Popular Dogs. ISBN 0091581508.
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Beynon, J. W. H. & Fisher, A. (1969). The Cairn Terrier 4th ed. revised. London: Popular Dogs. ISBN 0090614526.
Birch, B. & Birch, R. (1999). Pet Owner's Guide to the Cairn Terrier. Sydney : Ringpress ISBN 1860541119.
Camino E.E. & B. Co. Cairn Terrier Champions, 1952-1986. Camino, CA: Camino E.E. & B. Co. ISBN 0940808471.
Carter, C. (1995). The Cairn Terrier. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Accession No: OCLC: 34877430.
Caspersz, T. W. L. (1957). The Cairn Terrier Handbook: Giving the Origin and History of the Breed, Its Show Career, Its Points and Breeding. London: Nicholson & Watson. Accession No: OCLC: 6756006.
Cooke, R. & Cooke, C. (1997). The Cairn Terrier in Canada. East St. Paul, MB: R. & C. Cooke. : ISBN 096831760X (v. 1).
Gordon, J. F. (1987). All About the Cairn Terrier. London: Pelham Books. ISBN 0720717868.
Gordon, J. F. (1988). All About the Cairn Terrier. London: Pelham Books ISBN 0720717868.
Jacobi, G. A. (1976). Your Cairn Terrier. Fairfax, VA: Denlinger's. ISBN 0877140391.
Jamieson, R. (2000). Cairn Terrier. Dorking: Interpet. ISBN 1902389344.
Lehman, P. F. (1999). Cairn Terriers. Hauppauge, NY : Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0764106384.
Marcum, B. E. (1995). The New Cairn Terrier. New York : Howell Book House. ISBN 0876050739.
Marvin, J. T. (1975). The Complete Cairn Terrier. New York: Howell Book House.
Marvin, J. T. (1986). The New Complete Cairn Terrier 2nd ed. New York: Howell Book House. ISBN 0876050976.
McCormack, E. (1965). How to Raise and Train a Cairn Terrier. Neptune, N.J.: T.F.H. Publications. Accession No: OCLC: 1485681.
McCormack, E. (1983). How to Raise and Train a Cairn Terrier. Neptune, N.J.: T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0876662629 (pbk.).
McCormack, E. (1965). How to Raise and Train a Cairn Terrier. Neptune, N.J.: T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 087666262.
Patten, B. J. (1996). The Terrier Breeds. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp. ISBN 0865934584.
Ross, F. M., Burton, N. L. & others. (1932). The Cairn Terrier. Manchester, England: "Our Dogs" Pub. Co. Accession No: OCLC: 19603882.
Schneider, E. (1967). Know Your Cairn Terrier. New York: Pet Library. Accession No: OCLC: 2579232.
Walin, D. (1983). The Cairn Terrier and West Highland White: Breed Standards, History, Care and Grooming. Place of Publication Unknown: Oster Professional Products Department. Accession No: OCLC: 14081415.
Whitehead, H. F. [edited & revised by Macdonald, A.] (1976; 1975). Cairn Terriers. New York: Arco Pub. ISBN 0668039671.
Willis, J. R. (1993). Genetic Anomalies of the Cairn Terrier: A Reference Manual for Conscientious Breeders. Howell, MI: The Cairn Terrier Club of America. Accession No: OCLC: 41363972.
Gorke, B. ; Rentmeister, K. ; Peters, M. ; Siegert, F. ; Tipold, A. ; Hewicker-Trautwein, M. German Title: Progressive neuronopathy in the Cairn terrier: two cases in Germany Source: Wiener tierärztliche Monatsschrift. 88, Part 7 (2001): 183-186 Issue Id: Part 7 Alt Journal: Key Title: Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift Preceding Title: Tierärztliche zeitschrift Succeeding Title: Deutsche tierharztliche Wochenschrift Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift Tierärztliche rundschau Tierärztliche zeitschrift Standard No: ISSN: 0043-535X CODEN: WTMOA3 OCLC No: 1696180 BL Shelfmark: 9316.000000 Article Type: Article
Schaer, Michael ; Harvey, John W. ; Calderwood-Mays, Maron ; Giger, Urs Title: Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Causing Hemolytic Anemia with Secondary Hemochromatosis in a Cairn Terrier. Diagnosis is made from a liver biopsy and confirmed with electrophoretic and immunoprecipitation studies. Source: The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 28, no. 3, (May 1992): 233-240 Alt Journal: Key Title: The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Preceding Title: Animal hospital Standard No: ISSN: 0587-2871 CODEN: JAAHBL
American Kennel Club The Terrier Group. Raleigh, NC: American Kennel Club. Videocassette. Accession No: OCLC: 29245653.
Walin, D. [narrator]. (1988). Grooming the Short-Legged Terriers: Cairn, West Highland White, Scotties. Produced by Kluge Communications, Inc. Videocassette (39 minutes). Accession No: OCLC: 32606555.