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c. doppler

C. V. Raman

[rah-muhn]

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (சந்திரசேகர வெங்கடராமன) (7 November 188821 November 1970) was an Indian physicist who was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the molecular scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him.

Biography

Early years

'Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman was born on November 7, 1888', in an Iyer family in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. His mother tongue is Tamil. At an early age Raman moved to the city of Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. His father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics, so he grew up in an academic atmosphere. His nephew Subramanyan Chandrasekhar also won a Nobel prize in physics in 1983.

Middle years

Raman entered Presidency College, Madras, in 1902, and in 1904 gained his Bsc, winning the first place and the gold medal in physics. In 1907 he gained his Msc, obtaining the highest distinctions. He joined the Indian Finance Department as an Assistant Accountant General in Calcutta. As the story goes, one evening while returning from work, he spotted the sign of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS). He started visiting the laboratory after office hours and did experiments, which culminated with his Nobel Prize winning work.

In 1917 Raman resigned from his government service and took up the newly created Palit Professorship in Physics at the University of Calcutta. Simultaneously, he continued doing research at the IACS, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many talented students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta. He was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929.

Raman won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect. Raman spectroscopy is based on this phenomenon. He was the first Asian and first non-White to get any Nobel Prize in Science. Before him Sir Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received Nobel Prize for Literature.

Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam.

In 1934 Raman became the director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, where two years later he continued as a professor of physics. Other investigations carried out by Raman were: his experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934-1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light.

He also started a company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in 1943 along with Dr. Krishnamurthy. The Company during its 60 year history, established 4 factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India.

In 1948 Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behavior of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behavior of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, pearly felspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests were the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.

Old Age

He retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and a year later he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore Karnataka, serving as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, Karnataka, at the age of 82.

Awards & Recognition

Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society early in his career (1924) and knighted in 1929. In 1954 he was awarded the Bharat Ratna. He was also awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957.

India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928.

Raman's Scientific Publications (A select list)

1909

  • "The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String", Nature, 1909
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type", Nature, 1909
  • "The Ectara", J. Indian Math. Club, 19091910
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations", Nature, 1910
  • "Oscillations of the Stretched Strings", J. Indian Math. Club, 19101911
  • "Photographs of Vibrational Curves", Philos. Mag., 1911
  • "Remarks on a Paper by J.S. Stokes on 'Some Curious Phenomena Observed in Connection with Melde's Experiment'", Physics Rev., 1911
  • "The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String", Phys. Rev., 19111912
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type", Philos. Mag, 1912
  • "Some Remarkable Cases of Resonance", Phys. Rev. 1912
  • "Experimental Investigations on the Maintenance of Vibrations", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 19121913
  • "Some Acoustical Observations", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 19131914
  • "The Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 1914
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations", Phys. Rev. 1914
  • "Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1914
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 19141915
  • "On the Maintenance of Combinational Vibrations by Two Simple Harmonic forces", Phys. Rev., 1915
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force", Philos. Mag, 19151916
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 1", Philos. Mag, 1916 (with S Appaswamair)
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' of the Violin and Cello", Nature (London). 1916
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag., 19161917
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations in a Periodic Field of Force", Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A. Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 2", Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 3", Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A Dey)
  • "On the Alterations of Tone Produced by a Violin 'Mute'", Nature (London) 19171918
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag., 1918
  • "On the Wolf-Note in Pizzicato Playing", Nature (London), 1918
  • "On the Mechanical Theory of the Vibrations of Bowed Strings and of Musical Instruments of the Violin Family, with Experimental Verification of Results - Part 1", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1918
  • "The Theory of the Cyclical Vibrations of a Bowed String", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 19181919
  • "An Experimental Method for the Production of Vibrations", Phys. Rev., 1919
  • "A New Method for the Absolute Determination of Frequency", Proc. R. Soc. London, 1919
  • "On the Partial Tones of Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag, 1919
  • "The Kinematics of Bowed Strings", J. Dept of Sci., Univ. Calcutta, 19191920
  • "On the Sound of Splashes", Philos. Mag, 1920
  • "On a Mechanical Violin-Player for Acoustical Experiments, Philos. Mag., 1920
  • "Experiments with Mechanically-Played Violins", Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1920
  • "On Kaufmann's Theory of the Impact of the Pianoforte Hammer", proc. S. Soc. London, 1920 (with B Banerji)
  • "Musical Drums with Harmonic Overtones", Nature (London), 1920 (with S. Kumar)1921
  • "Whispering Gallery Phenomena at St. Paul's Cathedral", Nature (London) 1921 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • "The Nature of Vowel Sounds", Nature (London) 1921
  • "On the Whispering Gallery Phenomenon", Proc. R. Soc. London, 1922 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • "On Some Indian Stringed Instruments", Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 19211922
  • "On Whispering Galleries", Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 1922
  • "On the Molecular Scattering of Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea", Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1922
  • "The Acoustical Knowledge of the Ancient Hindus", Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee - Vol 2,1926
  • "The Subjective Analysis of Musical Tones", Nature (London), 19261927
  • "Musical Instruments and Their Tones"1928
  • "A new type of Secondary Radiation", Nature, 1928
  • "A new radiation", Indian Journal of Physics, 19281935
  • "The Indian Musical Drums", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part I", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part II", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Nature of Thermal Agitation in Liquids", Nature (London), 1935 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)1936
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part III: Doppler Effect and Coherence Phenomena", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part IV: Generalised Theory", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part V: General Considerations - Oblique Incidence and Amplitude Changes", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Diffraction of Light by Ultrasonic Waves", Nature (London), 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)1937
  • "Acoustic Spectrum of Liquids", Nature (London), 1937 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)1938
  • "Light Scattering and Fluid Viscosity", Nature (London), 1938 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)1948
  • Aspects of Science, 19481951
  • The New Physics: Talks on Aspects of Science, 19511959
  • Lectures on Physical Optics, 1959

See also

References

Further reading

  • Miller, Foil A.; Kauffman, George (1989). "C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman effect". Journal of Chemical Education 66 795 – 801.
  • Ramaseshan S: C.V.Raman. Journal of Madras University, section B, Sept.1983, 46(1): 1-16.
  • Scientific Papers of CV Raman, Ed. S Ramaseshan, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore 1988.
  • Sri Kantha S: The discovery of the Raman Effect and its impact in Biological Sciences. European Spectroscopy News, Aug/Sept. 1988, no.80, 20, 22, 24 & 26.
  • Sri Kantha S: Raman's prize. Nature, 1989; 340: 672.
  • Fabelinski I,L. Priority and the Raman Effect. Nature, 1990; 343: 686.

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