Definitions

buttress

buttress

[buh-tris]
buttress, mass of masonry built against a wall to strengthen it. It is especially necessary when a vault or an arch places a heavy load or thrust on one part of a wall. In the case of a wall carrying the uniform load of a floor or roof, it is more economical to buttress it at certain intervals than to make the entire wall thicker. Even when a wall carries no load, it is usually buttressed rather than uniformly thickened. For a load-bearing brick wall more than 8 ft (2 m) high a buttress is used every 20 ft (6 m). The decorative possibilities of the buttress were discovered in the ancient temples at Abu Shahrein in Mesopotamia (3500-3000 B.C.), where they were used both as utilitarian and decorative forms. The Romans employed buttresses, which sometimes projected from the exteriors of the walls and were then left as mere piles of masonry, without architectural treatment. But in the large structures, such as basilicas and baths, the buttresses that received the thrusts from the main vaulting were confined to the interior of the building, where they served also as partition walls. The basilica of Constantine in Rome (A.D. 312) exemplifies this arrangement. In the medieval church, the groined vaults, concentrating their great lateral thrusts at points along the exterior walls, required buttresses as an essential element to achieve stability. Beginning with Romanesque architecture about A.D. 1000, a steady evolution of buttresses can be traced, from the simple, slightly projecting piers of the 11th cent. to the bold and complex Gothic examples of the 13th, 14th, and 15th cent. Builders in England, Germany, and N France achieved striking architectural effects. They devised the flying buttress, an arch of masonry abutting against the wall of the nave; the thrust of the nave vault could thus be received and transferred to the vertical buttress built against the outside walls of the side aisles. These flying arches, at first concealed beneath the roofs, began to be exposed outside the roofs in the mid-12th cent. Later they were enriched with gables, stone tracery, and sculpture and were topped with pinnacles to give them extra weight. They constitute, especially in such French cathedrals as Amiens, Beauvais, and Notre-Dame de Paris, the true expression of the elasticity and equilibrium which were the basic principles of the Gothic structural system.

Exterior support, usually of masonry, projecting from the face of a wall and serving to strengthen it or resist outward thrust from an arch or roof. Buttresses also have a decorative function. Though used since ancient times (Mesopotamian temples featured decorative buttresses, as did Roman and Byzantine structures), they are especially associated with Gothic architecture. Seealso flying buttress.

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A buttress is an architectural structure built against (a counterfort) or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall. Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, especially in Germany, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing.

The word buttress, in a more general sense, means to support; one might buttress another person's arguments, for instance. By visual analogy, that which looks like a buttress may be called so; a projecting tree root at the base of the trunk, for example, may be referred to as a buttress.

In architectural terms, there are at least five distinct types of buttress:

  • Clasping buttresses support two walls as they meet at a corner by making some length of both walls at the corner thicker than the remainder of the wall.
  • Angle buttresses, like clasping buttresses, support walls at the corner by building each wall out beyond the corner, so that in plan the corner in fact is a cross shape.
  • Flying buttresses may be thought of as half- or semi-arches; the elevated end of the arch supports the wall and the lower end of the arch is mounted on foundations, or on pillars or other flying buttresses. Flying buttresses are especially common in medieval cathedral design.
  • Set-back buttresses support walls near a corner but set back from it.
  • Diagonal buttresses support walls at corners but are built diagonally out of the corner of the wall, so forming a 135° angle between the buttress and each wall.

In the two pictures of the Palace of Westminster to the right, the top image shows a buttress serving two functions; it buttresses the lower wall as an ordinary buttress; supports a flying buttress (only the top diagonal of which can be seen) which in turn supports the inset, higher of the two walls. The lower image shows no less than four different buttress designs: the two featured in the top image; diagonal buttresses around the base of the statue's plinth; a plain buttress to the far right of the picture.

Flying buttresses deserve additional mention for the part they played in enabling Gothic cathedrals to be developed into massive and splendidly airy structures. The three elements key to the move from the older, smaller and thicker walled Romanesque architecture were pointed arches, ribbed vaulted roofs and flying buttresses. These worked together to enable the construction of roofs having widths and weights greater than could be contemplated using hammer-beam roof constructions. Ribbed vaulted roofs are a form of arch extended across the floor-space to be roofed, subdivided by ribs (for instance from the four supporting pillars of a roof section) and coming together at a point, rather than continuing in a smooth semicircle as would a plain arch. Such roofs exert force down, but also out, laterally, away from their centre. These forces act on the top of the walls supporting the roof, pushing them apart; the flying buttress' design provides for an equal and opposite force to be imposed on the wall, thus keeping the wall in balance. This, firstly, enables the vaulted roof and, secondly, by externalising some of the structural elements of the wall, allows the wall so supported to be thinner, which in turn enables the development of large arched window sections to let in light and be filled by stained glass.

The pier section of a flying buttresses - that part which rises vertically from the ground (or other support) - is often taller than the flying end of the buttress. The additional height provides a deadweight pressing down on the pier, the function of which is to keep the line of force being opposed by the buttress within the line of the pier. The lateral force exerted by the roof travels down through the arched section of the buttress, and into the pier. Without the additional weight of the over-height pier, the line of force would exit the pier at some point way above the ground; if it did so, the pier would be unable to resist the force and so would collapse at that point. Combining the two force vectors, both from the roof and from the deadweight, keeps the line of force within the masonry of the pier.

In more modern buildings, better internal bracing of structures arising out of a more well-developed understanding of structural engineering diminishes the use of buttresses; however they are by no means obsolete, and will continue to be found as integral parts of certain structures, not least in certain designs of free standing curtain and retaining walls.

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