Technocracy : A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control; "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves by appeal to technical experts who justify themselves by appeal to scientific forms of knowledge". A governmental or organizational system where decision makers are selected based upon how highly knowledgeable they are, rather than how much political capital they hold.
Technocrats are individuals with technical training and occupations who perceive many important societal problems as being solvable, often while proposing technology-focused solutions. The administrative scientist Gunnar K. A. Njalsson theorizes that technocrats are primarily driven by their cognitive "problem-solution mindsets" and only in part by particular occupational group interests. Their activities and the increasing success of their ideas are thought to be a crucial factor behind the modern spread of technology and the largely ideological concept of the "Information Society." Technocrats may be distinguished from "econocrats" and "bureaucrats" whose problem-solution mindsets differ from those of the technocrats.
Some forms of technocracy are a form of de facto elitism, whereby the "most qualified" and the administrative elite tend to be the same. Other forms have been described as not being an oligarchic human group of controllers, but rather an administration by science without the influence of special interest groups. Regardless, technical and leadership skills selected through bureaucratic processes on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than democratic elections are used as the most important criteria.
Engineers heatedly discussed these issues in US engineering journals and proceedings. Three ideological outcomes were produced. Firstly, Taylorism which integrates price structures into engineering concerns, thus producing scientific management where the capitalist manager and engineer divide control over the production process and working class between themselves. Secondly, building on Taylorism the Soviet Union implemented socialist-Taylorism where economic planning, a political bureaucracy and a technical elite divided control over the economy through institutions like the GOELRO plan or five year plans. While political concerns influenced Soviet planning, the political bureaucracy designed plans so as to achieve technical outcomes, and used production price accounting as a technical, rather than economic measure. Finally, in the United States a view that technical concerns should take precedence developed among engineers such as William Howard Smyth based on the early conception of Industrial democracy which was limited merely to the technical government of firms.
Thorstein Veblen, a member of the Technical Alliance, wrote his book The Engineers and the Price System during this time.. It was later used as reference material by the Technocracy movement. The various schools of thought amongst engineers and other interested parties eventually produced social institutions arguing for purely technical government of society in the 1930s. Technocracy Incorporated formulated a plan for the land mass of North America, to employ a non monetary system "Energy Accounting" , which uses a post scarcity type of economy as its basis.The system proposed, based on energy accounting instead of money, uses thermodynamics as its basis.The Technate scientific social design as projected in the Technocracy Study Course, would include such post scarcity aspects as free housing (Urbanates), transportation, recreation, and education. In other words free everything, including all consumer products, as a right of citizenship.Everyone would receive an equal amount of consuming power via this Non-market economics, post scarcity method, in theory.
In Wealth, Virtual Wealth and Debt, Frederick Soddy turned his attention to the role of energy in economic systems. He criticized the focus on monetary flows in economics, arguing that “real” wealth was derived from the use of energy to transform materials into physical goods and services. Soddy’s economic writings were largely ignored in his time, but would later be applied to the development of biophysical economics and ecological economics and also bioeconomics in the late 20th century.
Other movements advocating technocratic government included, in France, the Groupe X-Crise, formed by French former students of the Ecole Polytechnique engineer school in the 1930s, as well as Redressement Français, a French technocratic movement founded by Ernest Mercier in 1925. Along with the Belgian Henri de Man, X-Crise advocated planisme (planism), which advocated, instead of economic liberalism, the use of economic plans and planification. Influenced by de Man's planism, the Neo-socialists Marcel Déat, Pierre Renaudel, René Belin, the "neo-Turks" of the Radical-Socialist Party (Pierre Mendès-France, etc.) promoted a "constructive revolution" headed by the state and technocrat], through economic planification. Such ideas also influenced the Non-Conformist Movement in the French right-wing.
In Great Britain, Political and Economic Planning, a think-tank founded in 1931, also advocated such economic intervention.
The same idea can be applied on much larger scales, with automated public surveillance by semi-intelligent systems that automatically control or limit the actions of individuals to prevent illegal activity. This is called the carceral state, in which the whole state is effectively a Panopticon - a prison with strict rules, where all individuals are supervised to ensure compliance. Author Charles Stross called this a Panopticon Singularity. In this way, the bureaucratic form of technocracy may be an authoritarian system of governance.
The principles of anticipatory design, wayfinding, and B. F. Skinner's vision Walden Two similarly concern authoritarian systems of governance but are based on psychology and conditioning exclusively and not on any intrusive technology to enforce the rules.
Many technocrats would suggest that fear of technology and social change often assume the most oppressive and dystopian of scenarios, pointing to popular media and propaganda in which socialism, democracy, and communism have all been portrayed in an equally dystopian and cautionary light.
The animated series Insektors features a character, Teknocratus, as the "chief engineer" to the Yuk society. At one point, he creates a computer, Kalkulator, capable of automating a city.
A technocratic elite rule the last human city of Bregna in the 2005 movie Æon Flux.