The term "bureaucrat" today has largely accepted negative connotations, so those who are the members of a governmental bureaucracy usually prefer terms such as civil servant or public servant to describe their jobs. The negative connotation is fueled by the perception that bureaucrats lack creativity and autonomy.
As an academic, Woodrow Wilson professed in the United States "bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed from the common political life of the people, its chiefs as well as its rank and file. Its motives, its objects, its policy, its standards, must be bureaucratic."
Bureaucrats of the EU are frequently termed eurocrats in the English language in Europe - a portmanteau of European Union (or Europe) and bureaucrat. Such portmanteaus have multiplied in recent years, including educrat or milicrat.
In imperial China, bureaucrats largely composed the social elite. Known in Europe as Mandarins, after the Portuguese word for 'councillor', this variety of bureaucrats passed a set of complicated examinations and were posted throughout the empire.
Street-Level Bureaucrats and Intrastate Variation in the Implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Policies
Jan 01, 2005; Street-level bureaucrats are key players in any policy-implementation process (Keiser 1999; Kelly 1994; Lipsky 1980, 1984;...