The surgical terminology suffix "-ectomy" was taken from Greek εκ-τομια = "act of cutting out". It means surgical removal of something, usually from inside the body.
- Endarterectomy is the removal of plaque from the lining of the artery otherwise constricted by a buildup of fatty deposits.
- Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is the burning, severing, removing or clamping parts of the sympathetic nerve trunk.
- Extrapleural pneumonectomy is the removal of the entire lung along with the pleura, the lung lining and part of the pericardium, the lining of the heart.
- Gastrectomy is the partial or full removal of the stomach.
- Ganglionectomy is the excision of a ganglion
- Glossectomy is the removal of part or all of the tongue
- Iridectomy - Removal of a piece of iris from the eye (mainly done for iris tumours e.g. melanoma of the iris)
- Mastectomy is the surgical removal of one or both breasts. A mastectomy can be either partial or complete.
- Mastoidectomy is the removal of disease from the bone behind the ear.
- Maxillectomy is the removal of the maxilla or cheekbone - Sometimes done with orbital exenteration (removal of the eye and the orbital contents surrounding the eye) or by enucleation (removal of the eyeball)
- Mandibulectomy is the removal of the mandible or the lower jaw bone.
- Myomectomy is the removal of fibroids from the uterus, but the uterus is left intact.
- Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of a female animal's ovaries, also called spaying.
- Orchidectomy is any process whereby a biological male (human or animal) loses the use of his testes. Also known as an orchiectomy.
- Oesophagectomy is the removal or part or all of the oesophagus
- Pharyngolaryngooesphogectomy is the surgical removal of the pharynx, larynx and esophogus, usually as a result of cancer of the hypopharynx.
- Pancreatectomy is the removal of part or all of the pancreas. If the whole of the pancreas is removed, the person will become diabetic.
- Parathyroidectomy is the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
- Partial vulvectomy is the partial removal of the vulva. See under letter 'V' for vulva and the other types of vulvectomy.
- Pelvic exenteration (female) - Removal of all the female reproductive organs - uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, vagina, part of the bowel, urinary bladder and sometimes the vulva.
- Penectomy is the partial or complete removal of the penis. Also known as a pendectomy.
- Pneumonectomy is the surgical removal of a lung.
- Photorefractive keratectomy is the alteration of the cornea by means of a laser.
- Posthectomy, more commonly known as circumcision, is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. Also known as a prepucectomy, as the medical term for the foreskin is the prepuce.
- Proctocolectomy is the removal of the colon or the large intestine and the rectum
- Prostatectomy is the removal of the prostate gland. May be either all of the gland (radical) or just a part of transurethral resection of the prostate.
- Radical vulvectomy is the complete removal of the vulva, including the lymph nodes on both sides of the groin.
- Radical mastectomy - Removal of the whole breast, along with the chest lining, both major and minor chest muscles and all of the underarm lymph nodes on that side. Also called Halstead Mastectomy.
- Rhinectomy is the removal of part or all of the nose
- Radical nephrectomy - Removal of the kidney along with the adrenal gland and the ureter (the tube after the kidney connecting to the urinary bladder with it)
- Vaginectomy is the removal of all or part of the vagina.
- Vasectomy is the surgical tying of the vas deferens, tubes that connect to the male testes and transport sperm, done for the purposes of sterilization in males.
- Vulvectomy is the removal of all or part of the vulva (external female genitalia) - The types of vulvectomy are
- Skinning vulvectomy - Removal of the top layers of the vulva only
- Simple or total vulvectomy - Removal of the entire vulva only
- Partial vulvectomy - Removal of part/one side of the vulva only
- Radical vulvectomy - Removal of the entire vulva along with lymph nodes on both sides of the groin. Vulvectomy is mainly done for vulvar cancer.
Sometimes this suffix is used humorously in non-surgical contexts, for example "popculturectomy" for a type of editing process on a text.