Historic U.S. Route 30 goes right through Buhl along the scenic Thousand Springs Scenic Byway from Twin Falls to Bliss. Known as the "Trout Capital of the World," Buhl boasts numerous hatcheries in the immediate surrounding area, which produce most of the rainbow trout consumed in the United States. Clear Springs Foods, located just north of Buhl, processes over 20 million pounds of rainbow trout each year, making it the world's largest producer.
Buhl was founded on April 17, 1906. It was named for Frank H. Buhl, a major investor in a Carey Act project known as the Twin Falls South Side project, which introduced large-scale irrigation to the region in the early 20th Century.
Literary trivia: In Truman Capote's historically-based 1965 novel, In Cold Blood, one of the murderers, Perry Smith, gets temporary work as a "truck driver" in Buhl.
There were 1,561 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,644, and the median income for a family was $34,242. Males had a median income of $26,069 versus $17,069 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,539. About 9.6% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.