Buckingham

Buckingham

[buhk-ing-uhm, -ham]
Buckingham, dukes of (Stafford line): see Stafford, Edward; Stafford, Henry; Stafford, Humphrey.
Buckingham, George Nugent Temple Grenville, 1st marquess of: see Grenville, George Nugent Temple, 1st marquess of Buckingham.
Buckingham, George Villiers, 1st duke of, 1592-1628, English courtier and royal favorite. He arrived (1614) at the English court as James I was tiring of his favorite, Robert Carr, earl of Somerset. Villiers was made a gentleman of the bedchamber (1615) and, after Somerset's disgrace, rose rapidly, becoming earl of Buckingham (1617), marquess (1618), and lord high admiral (1619). In 1620 he married Lady Katherine Manners, daughter of the Roman Catholic earl of Rutland. By this time Buckingham controlled dispensation of the king's patronage, which enabled him to grant lucrative monopolies to his relatives. In 1621, Parliament began to investigate abuses of these monopolies, but Buckingham prevented action against himself (though not against his friend Sir Francis Bacon) by joining in the condemnation of his relatives. Buckingham favored the proposed marriage of Prince Charles (later Charles I) with the Infanta Maria of Spain and in 1623 went with Charles to Madrid. There his arrogance contributed to the final breakdown of the long deadlocked marriage negotiations. Buckingham, now a duke, returned to England, advocating war with Spain, which made him the hero of Parliament. He lost that popularity rapidly by negotiating (1624) the marriage of Charles with another Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France. He was also blamed for the disastrous failure (Feb.-Mar., 1625) of an English expedition, under Graf von Mansfeld, to recover the Palatinate for Frederick the Winter King; Buckingham failed to supply it adequately. By this time Charles had become king, and Buckingham was more powerful than ever, a fact that enraged Parliament. After the embarrassing failure (Oct., 1625) of an expedition against Cádiz, Buckingham was impeached (1626), and Charles dissolved Parliament to prevent his trial. The following year Buckingham led an expedition (another disaster) to relieve the Huguenots of La Rochelle, and Parliament delivered another remonstrance against him. The duke was at Portsmouth preparing yet another expedition for La Rochelle when he was killed by John Felton, a disgruntled naval officer. The romantic aspects of the duke's career figure largely in Alexander Dumas's historical novel, The Three Musketeers.

See biographies by R. Lockyer (1984) and C. Phipps (1985).

Buckingham, George Villiers, 2d duke of, 1628-87, English courtier; son of the 1st duke. Brought up with the royal family and educated at Cambridge, he was a strong royalist in the English civil war. In 1648 he escaped to the Continent, where he became a privy councillor of the exiled Charles II. He accompanied Charles to Scotland in 1650 and fought at Worcester (1651), but later intrigues with Oliver Cromwell's government estranged him from Charles. In 1657, Buckingham returned to England and married Mary, the daughter of the Puritan general Thomas Fairfax of Cameron. He hoped thereby to recover his estates, which had been confiscated in 1651, but instead he was imprisoned until 1659. After the Restoration (1660) he regained the favor of Charles II and was one of the most powerful courtiers of the reign. Vain and ambitious, he was known for his recklessness, quarrelsome temper, and lack of principle. He was a member of the Cabal and a bitter rival of his fellow minister, the earl of Arlington. He was furious when he was kept in ignorance of the provisions of the secret Treaty of Dover (1670) with Louis XIV. Attacked by the House of Commons for misusing public funds and conducting secret negotiations with France and by the House of Lords for his open liaison with the countess of Shrewsbury (whose husband he had killed in a duel in 1668), he was dismissed from office in 1674. He joined the enemies of the duke of York (later James II) and participated vigorously in the outcry against Roman Catholics in the furor over Titus Oates's Popish Plot (1678), although he had earlier been much in favor of religious tolerance. He did not vote for exclusion of the duke of York from succession to the throne, however, and in 1684 was restored to favor and retired from politics. Buckingham patronized science and literature, had refined tastes, wrote poetry, religious tracts, and plays, and dabbled in chemistry. He was producer and partial author of a celebrated satire on heroic drama, The Rehearsal (1671; ed. by Montague Summers, 1914).

See biographies by H. W. Chapman (1949) and J. H. Wilson (1954).

orig. George Villiers

(born Jan. 30, 1628, London, Eng.—died April 16, 1687, Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire) English politician. Born eight months before the assassination of his father, the 1st duke of Buckingham, he was brought up with the family of Charles I. He fought for Charles II in the English Civil Wars, and after the Restoration in 1660 Buckingham became a leading member of the king's inner circle of ministers, known as the Cabal. Parliament had him dismissed from his posts for alleged Catholic sympathies in 1674.

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London residence of the British sovereign. It takes its name from the house built there early in the 18th century for the dukes of Buckingham. Victoria was the first sovereign to live there. John Nash began the reconstruction of Buckingham House as a Neoclassical palace in 1821, but was not allowed to finish. His garden front remains virtually unchanged, but the Mall front was redesigned in 1913 by Sir Aston Webb (1849–1930) as a background for the Queen Victoria Memorial statue.

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Buckingham is a census-designated place (CDP) in Lee County, Florida, United States. The population was 3,742 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Buckingham is located at (26.659164, -81.734286).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 19.0 square miles (49.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,742 people, 1,283 households, and 1,008 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 197.3 people per square mile (76.2/km²). There were 1,360 housing units at an average density of 71.7/sq mi (27.7/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.20% White, 2.32% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 1.92% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.68% of the population.

There were 1,283 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.4% were non-families. 15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 30.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 109.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.6 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $51,068, and the median income for a family was $55,719. Males had a median income of $33,176 versus $25,676 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $19,103. About 6.4% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.

References

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