is a shield volcano
on Jeju Island
of South Korea
. Hallasan is the highest mountain
of South Korea. The area around the mountain is a designated national park
, the Hallasan National Park
(Hallasan Gungnip Gongwon
/한라산국립공원/漢拏山國立公園). Hallasan is commonly considered to be one of the three main mountains of South Korea, with Jirisan
being the other two.
Alternate names for the mountain include Halla Mountain
or Mount Halla
and older English sources refer to the peak as Mount Auckland
. Hallasan is written in North Korea
as if it were Hannasan
(한나산); however, it is still pronounced as Hallasan
. In the past, Hallasan has been known by numerous other names in Korean including Buag
영주산(瀛州山), and Hyeolmangbong
Geology and geography
Hallasan is a massive shield volcano
which forms the bulk of Jeju Island
and is often taken as representing the island itself. There is a local saying stating that "Jeju Island is Hallasan; and Hallasan is Jeju." The mountain can indeed be seen from all places on the island, but its peak is often covered in clouds. The mountain has been designated Korea's Natural Monument
The volcanic island was constucted starting in the Pliocene epoch atop the continental shelf, which is presently about 100 m (300 ft) below sea level in that area. Eruptions of basalt and trachyte lava built the island above sea level, and it now reaches a height of . A large volcanic crater over in diameter tops the volcano. About 360 parasitic cones, or oreum (오름) in the Jeju dialect, are found on the volcano's flanks. Most of them are cinder cones and scoria cones, but there are also some lava domes and about 20 tuff rings near the coast and offshore, which were formed by underwater phreatic eruptions. The most recent eruptions occurred on the flanks in 1002 and 1007.
There is a crater lake on Hallasan called Baengnokdam (백록담/白鹿潭), literally "white deer lake." There is a legend attributing the name of the lake to otherworldly men who descend from heaven to play with white deer. Depending on the season, the circumference of the lake is up to 2 kilometres with a depth up to about 100 metres.
The mountain is home to Gwaneumsa
, the oldest Buddhist
temple on the island. The temple was originally built during the Goryeo Dynasty
. Like many other temples in Korea, Gwaneumsa was destroyed and rebuilt in the 20th century. There is a memorial site outside the temple, remembering the victims of the Jeju uprising
that took place between 1948 and 1950. It is one of the most visited places of the island.
There are five hiking trails on Hallasan, with the Donnaeko trail being closed to the public since 1994. At this time, only the Gwaneumsa and Seongpanak trails lead to the summit. The trail to the summit from Eorimok and Yeongsil courses has also been closed off since 1994 in order to restore and protect the vegetation.
- Gwaneumsa Trail (관음사) - 8.7 km
- Eorimok Trail (어리목) - 4.7 km
- Seongpanak Trail (성판악) - 9.6 km
- Yeongsil Trail (영실) - 3.7 km
- Donnaeko Trail (돈내코)