Bruce

Bruce

[broos]
Bruce, Scottish royal family descended from an 11th-century Norman duke, Robert de Brus. He aided William I in his conquest of England (1066) and was given lands in England. His son was granted fiefs in Scotland, and the family therefore rendered homage in both kingdoms. The 5th Robert the Bruce was married to Isobel, second daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, brother of the Scottish kings Malcolm IV and William the Lion. The son of that marriage, the 6th Robert the Bruce, was a claimant to the Scottish throne after the death of Margaret Maid of Norway in 1290. The crown, however, was awarded by Edward I to John de Baliol, grandson of the eldest daughter of David of Huntingdon. A grandson of this Robert was the famous Robert Bruce or Robert the Bruce who became king of Scotland as Robert I. The brother of Robert I, Edward Bruce, was crowned ineffectually king of Ireland in 1316. The young son of Robert I succeeded his father as David II and was in turn succeeded by his nephew, Robert II, son of Robert I's daughter Marjory and the first king of Scotland of the Stuart family.
Bruce, Edward, d. 1318, Scottish king of Ireland, brother of Robert I of Scotland. He aided his brother in the war for independence from England and in 1315 was declared heir to Robert's throne. With Robert's approval he then invaded Ulster, to which he had some hereditary claim. He was crowned king of Ireland in 1316 and found many Irish allies against the Anglo-Irish rulers. However, he failed to consolidate his gains and was killed in battle in 1318.
Bruce, James, 1730-94, Scottish explorer in Africa. He explored Roman ruins in N Africa (1755) from Tunis to Tripoli and visited Crete, Rhodes, and Asia Minor. In 1768 he traveled down the Red Sea as far as the straits of Bab el Mandeb. From Massawa he struck inland for Gondar, then the capital of Ethiopia. He rediscovered (1770) the source of the Blue Nile, which he followed (1771) to its confluence with the White Nile. He wrote Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, 1768-73 (3d ed. 1813). For his travels in Barbary, see R. L. Playfair, Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce (1877).

See biography by J. M. Reid (1968).

Bruce, James, 8th earl of Elgin: see Elgin, James Bruce, 8th earl of.
Bruce, Lenny, 1925-66, American comedian, b. Long Island, N.Y., as Leonard Alfred Schneider. Possessed of a cynical, surreal, and intensely comic view of the world, Bruce brutally satirized such sensitive areas of American life as sex, religion, and race relations. His comedy left no group unscathed, and his routines were replete with four-letter words. Consequently, Bruce was at various times arrested and forbidden to perform; in 1964 he was convicted of obscenity charges stemming from a New York City performance. He was also arrested for narcotics violations. In Aug., 1966, he died of an overdose of narcotics at the age of 41. After his death Bruce became a cult figure, considered by many to be a martyr to the cause of free speech. His autobiography, How to Talk Dirty and Influence People (1965), sold well, and his nightclub routines were collected and published as The Essential Lenny Bruce (1966). Lenny, a musical based on his life and including much of his comic material, was a hit on Broadway in 1971. After his cult popularity had diminished, he was still regarded as a seminal figure in American culture, whose influence could be seen in the work of important novelists, playwrights, and filmmakers of the 1970s. In 2003, Bruce was posthumously pardoned of his obscenity conviction by the governor of New York.

See biography by A. Goldman (with L. Schiller), Ladies and Gentlemen, Lenny Bruce!! (1974).

Bruce, Stanley Melbourne, 1883-1967, Australian political leader. Educated at Cambridge, he was called to the bar (1906) in England. After service in World War I, he entered the commonwealth legislature in 1918, was treasurer (1921-23) in the cabinet of W. M. Hughes, and served (1923-29) as prime minister. He was notable for promoting the closest relations of Australia with the empire compatible with Australian self-government, and he also advocated international cooperation. Bruce served as Australian delegate to the League of Nations and in 1936 was president of the council. From 1933 to 1945 he was high commissioner for Australia in London. In 1947 he was made Viscount Bruce of Melbourne.
Bruce, Thomas, 7th earl of Elgin: see Elgin, Thomas Bruce, 7th earl of.
Bruce, Victor Alexander, 9th earl of Elgin: see under Elgin, James Bruce, 8th earl of.
Bruce, William Speirs, 1867-1921, Scottish explorer and authority on the polar regions. He first went to the Antarctic as ship's surgeon in 1892 and later did survey work in Franz Josef Land and oceanographic work in the Arctic Ocean. He led (1902-4) the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition in the Scotia, performing much valuable scientific research in the Weddell Sea and discovering Coats Land. Bruce established a meteorological station on Laurie Island (in the South Orkney group). He edited the reports of the expedition (6 vol.) and wrote Polar Exploration (1911). Bruce made a number of voyages to Spitsbergen and became an authority on the islands.

See R. N. Rudmose Brown, A Naturalist at the Poles (1923).

Beresford, Bruce, 1940-, Australian film director, b. Sydney, grad. Sydney Univ. (1962). Beresford moved to England, worked for the British Film Institute (1966-71), and made several modest films. Returning home in 1971, he became known as one of Australia's "new wave" directors, excelling particularly at intimate period dramas. His first popular success was the darkly humorous Don's Party (1975). He scored his first real hit with the intense Breaker Morant (1979), based on a Boer War incident. In the early 1980s, Beresford moved to the United States, where he won considerable praise with the subtle, Texas-set Tender Mercies (1982). His greatest success was the Academy Award-winning Driving Miss Daisy (1989), a moving tale of friendship between a wealthy Southern widow and her African-American chauffeur. His other films include The Getting of Wisdom (1977), Crimes of the Heart (1986), Black Robe (1991), Paradise Road (1997), and Bride of the Wind (2001). He is also a screenwriter and producer, and has directed a number of opera productions.

See study by P. Coleman (1993).

Nauman, Bruce, 1941-, American artist, b. Fort Wayne, Ind.; studied Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (B.A., 1964), Univ. of California, Davis (M.F.A., 1966). One of the most innovative and influential contemporary American artists, he was partially responsible for restoring political and social content to works of art and for lessening the influence of minimalism. Nauman has worked in many media, including sculpture (fiberglass, neon, rubber, and other materials), drawing, photography, video, sound, film, holograms, prints, performance, and installations. Highly conceptual and concerned with the process of making art, Nauman displays a witty, irreverant, and frequently ironic sensibility in work that varies from casts of his own body, e.g., From Hand to Mouth (1967, Hirshhorn Mus., Washington, D.C.) to flashing neon signs that frequently pun, employ homonyms, and otherwise play with language, e.g., None Sing (1970, Guggenheim Mus.), and a variety of videotape installations, e.g., Clown Torture (1987, Art Inst. of Chicago) and Mapping the Studio I (Fat Chance John Cage) (2001).

See J. Kraynak, ed., Please Pay Attention Please: Bruce Nauman's Words: Writings and Interviews (2003); studies by J. Livingston and M. Tucker (1972), C. van Bruggen (1988), N. Benezra (1994), R. C. Morgan, ed. (2002), and S. Cross, ed. (2003).

Catton, Bruce, 1899-1978, American historian, b. Petoskey, Mich. He studied at Oberlin College and then entered upon a varied career as a journalist (1926-42) and public official (1942-52). His service with the War Production Board during World War II led to his first major book, The War Lords of Washington (1948). After 1952 he devoted himself to full-time literary work, serving as an editor from 1954 (senior editor, 1959) of the American Heritage magazine. In 1954 he received the Pulitzer Prize for his historical work, A Stillness at Appomattox (1953). Catton has written extensively on the military history of the Civil War; his many works include Mr. Lincoln's Army (1951), Glory Road (1952), This Hallowed Ground (1956), Grant Moves South (1960), Grant Takes Command (1969), The Centennial History of the Civil War (3 vol., 1961-65), and Prefaces to History (1970).
Golding, Bruce, 1947-, Jamaican political leader. The son of Tacius Golding, a member of parliament and speaker of the house in the 1960s, he is a graduate of the Univ. of the West Indies (B.Sc., 1969). A member of the Jamaican Labor party (JLP), he was first elected to parliament in 1972. In 1980 he became minister of construction in the cabinet of Prime Minister Edward Seaga. In an attempt to reform Jamaica's political system, Golding was a founder (1995) and president (1995-2001) of a third party, the National Democratic Movement, but he rejoined the JLP in 2002. In 2005 he succeeded Seaga as leader of the JLP, then in opposition. When the JLP narrowly won the 2007 election, Golding became prime minister.
Rogers, Bruce, 1870-1957, American typographer and book designer, b. Lafayette, Ind. As printing adviser to Cambridge Univ. Press, Harvard Univ. Press, and to commercial houses specializing in limited editions and fine printing, he earned a reputation as his era's leading American book designer. Influenced by Nicolas Jenson's types, he designed the Centaur typeface and the format of the Oxford Lectern Bible (1935). Rogers also wrote Paragraphs on Printing (1943) and Pi (1953), a collection of letters, papers, and addresses.
Bairnsfather, Bruce, 1888-1959, English illustrator and author, b. India. He served with the British forces in World War I and created the cartoon character "Old Bill" to typify the spirit of the British infantryman. During World War II, Bairnsfather was cartoonist with the U.S. forces in Europe. His works include Fragments from France (1916), Bullets and Billets (1917), and Jeeps and Jests (1943).

(born Aug. 26, 1906, Białystok, Poland, Russian Empire—died March 3, 1993, Washington, D.C., U.S.) Polish-born U.S. physician and microbiologist. He immigrated to the U.S. with his parents in 1921 and received an M.D. from New York University. He grew poliovirus in human nerve tissue outside the body, showed that it does not enter the body through the respiratory system, and proved that poliomyelitis is primarily an infection of the digestive tract. He postulated that an oral vaccine would work longer than Jonas Salk's injections of killed virus, and he isolated weakened strains of each of the three types of poliovirus that would stimulate antibody production but not produce disease. The Sabin oral polio vaccine, approved for use in the U.S. in 1960, became the main defense against polio throughout the world.

Learn more about Sabin, Albert B(ruce) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Robert the Bruce

(born July 11, 1274—died June 7, 1329, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scot.) King of Scotland (1306–29). Though Robert was of Anglo-Norman ancestry and held lands in both England and Scotland, he sided with the Scots against England and supported the rebel William Wallace. He gained the Scottish throne in 1306 after stabbing a rival to death in a quarrel. Twice defeated by Edward I (1306), he became a fugitive, hiding on a remote island off the Irish coast. Within a year, Robert returned to Scotland and began gathering supporters, and in 1314 he defeated Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward III finally recognized him and confirmed Scottish independence in 1328.

Learn more about Robert I with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 20, 1811, London, Eng.—died Nov. 20, 1863, Dharmshala, India) British governor-general of Canada. He was appointed governor of Jamaica in 1842. As governor of British North America (1847–54), he implemented the policy of responsible, or cabinet, government recommended by Lord Durham. Elgin supported the Rebellion Losses Act (1849), which compensated Canadians for losses during the 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada, a stand criticized by Tory opponents in England and French-Canadian rioters in Montreal. He negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty (1854) between the Canadian colonies and the U.S. In 1857 he left Canada to serve in diplomatic posts in China, Japan, and India.

Learn more about Elgin, James Bruce, 8th earl of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 20, 1811, London, Eng.—died Nov. 20, 1863, Dharmshala, India) British governor-general of Canada. He was appointed governor of Jamaica in 1842. As governor of British North America (1847–54), he implemented the policy of responsible, or cabinet, government recommended by Lord Durham. Elgin supported the Rebellion Losses Act (1849), which compensated Canadians for losses during the 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada, a stand criticized by Tory opponents in England and French-Canadian rioters in Montreal. He negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty (1854) between the Canadian colonies and the U.S. In 1857 he left Canada to serve in diplomatic posts in China, Japan, and India.

Learn more about Elgin, James Bruce, 8th earl of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 26, 1906, Białystok, Poland, Russian Empire—died March 3, 1993, Washington, D.C., U.S.) Polish-born U.S. physician and microbiologist. He immigrated to the U.S. with his parents in 1921 and received an M.D. from New York University. He grew poliovirus in human nerve tissue outside the body, showed that it does not enter the body through the respiratory system, and proved that poliomyelitis is primarily an infection of the digestive tract. He postulated that an oral vaccine would work longer than Jonas Salk's injections of killed virus, and he isolated weakened strains of each of the three types of poliovirus that would stimulate antibody production but not produce disease. The Sabin oral polio vaccine, approved for use in the U.S. in 1960, became the main defense against polio throughout the world.

Learn more about Sabin, Albert B(ruce) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bruce is a town situated along the Skuna River in Calhoun County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 2,097 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Bruce is located at (33.991971, -89.342197).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.6 square miles (6.6 km²), all of it land.

History

Bruce was named for E. L. Bruce, the man that founded the E. L. Bruce Company, a sawmill operation. The sawmill industry is still a vital industry in Bruce with Weyerhaeuser operating a mill; Bruce also is home to other independently-owned mills.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,097 people, 889 households, and 562 families residing in the town. The population density was 818.8 people per square mile (316.3/km²). There were 1,005 housing units at an average density of 392.4/sq mi (151.6/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 53.27% White, 44.35% African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.86% from other races, and 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population.

There were 889 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 22.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the town the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $20,417, and the median income for a family was $31,806. Males had a median income of $34,063 versus $21,380 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,233. About 20.1% of families and 29.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.6% of those under age 18 and 26.6% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The Town of Bruce is served by the Calhoun County School District.

Notable people

Bruce is the hometown of the late Kansas City-based Larry Stewart, a multimillionaire philanthropist. New Orleans Saints player Fred Thomas is also a native.

The Bollinger Family performs a gospel, country, and bluegrass show in Bruce most weekends throughout the year at the Bollinger Family Theater. The Bollingers have spent their lives entertaining through music, mostly gospel in various singing groups including The Kinsmen, The Father's Sons, and the Bollinger Family Band.

Bruce is also the home to family-owned clothing store, Y'all Come T-Shirts. It is located on the square and sells custom shirts, business cards, and almost anything else you want. Y'all Come T-Shirts has been known to do shirts for Fred Thomas, The Bollinger Family Theater, and other locally-famous people.

References

External links

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