Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy

[brong-kos-kuh-pee]
Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualising the inside of the airways. An instrument bronchoscope is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient's airways for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs: biopsies, fluid (bronchoalveolar lavage), or endobronchial brushing. The practitioner may use either a rigid bronchoscope or flexible bronchoscope.

History

A German, Gustav Killian, performed the first bronchoscopy in 1897. From then until the 1970s, doctors evaluated people’s airways using a rigid bronchoscope.

Types

Rigid

A rigid bronchoscope is a straight, hollow, metal tube. Doctors perform rigid bronchoscopy less often today, but it remains the procedure of choice for removing foreign materials, as its increased thickness allows instruments to be more easily inserted through it. Rigid bronchoscopy also becomes useful when bleeding interferes with viewing the examining area, and allows for more interventions, such as cautery to stop the bleeding.

Flexible

A flexible bronchoscope is a long thin tube that contains small clear optical fibers that transmit light images as the tube bends. Its flexibility allows this instrument to reach further into the airway. The procedure can be performed easily and safely under local anesthesia. As flexible bronchoscopes become more advanced, it is likely that they will replace rigid bronchoscopes for most procedures.

Purposes

Diagnostic

Therapeutic

  • To remove foreign objects lodged in the airway
  • * Laser resection of benign tracheal and bronchial strictures
  • Stent insertion to palliate extrinsic compression of the tracheobronchial lumen from either malignant or benign disease processes

Procedure

The bronchoscopy is performed in 1 of 3 areas:

The patient will be given antianxiety and antisecretory medications (to prevent oral secretions from obstructing the view), generally atropine (Atropair, I-Tropine) and morphine (Duramorph, Oramorph, Roxanol), half an hour before the procedure.

During the procedure, doctors provide an agent such as midazolam (Versed) to sedate although the patient would remain conscious. Lidocaine may also be used to anesthetize the upper airways.

The patient is monitored during the procedure with periodic blood pressure checks, continuous ECG monitoring of the heart and oxygen measurement. Monitoring is particularly important when the patient remains conscious during the procedure.

The doctor inserts a flexible bronchoscope through either the nose or mouth either in the sitting or lying down position.

Once the bronchoscope is inserted into the upper airway, the doctor examines the vocal cords. The doctor continues to advance the instrument to the trachea and further down into the bronchus, examining each area as the bronchoscope passes.

If doctors discover an abnormality, they may sample it, using a brush, a needle, or forceps.They also may sample a large number of alveoli. Doctors can obtain a specimen of lung tissue (transbronchial biopsy) often using a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy).

Recovery

Although most adults tolerate bronchoscopy well, doctors require that the patient remains under a brief period of observation.

Nurses watch closely for 2-4 hours following the procedure, usually every 15 minutes. The patient is kept in semi-fowler position. Most complications occur early and are readily apparent at the time of the procedure. The patient is assessed for respiratory difficulty (stridor and dyspnea resulting from laryngeal edema or laryngospasm). Monitoring continues until the effects of sedative drugs wear off and gag reflex has returned. If the patient has had a transbronchial biopsy, doctors will take a chest x-ray to rule out any air leakage in the lungs (pneumothorax) after the procedure. The patient will be hospitalized if there occurs any bleeding, air leakage (pneumothorax), or respiratory distress.

Risks

Although the rigid bronchoscope can scratch or tear airway or damage the vocal cords, the risk for bronchoscopy is limited. The conditions for which doctors use it are ongoing, life-threatening cardiac problems or severely low oxygen.

Complications from fiberoptic bronchoscopy remain extremely low.

Common complications include either heart and blood vessel problems or excessive bleeding following biopsy. A lung biopsy also may cause leakage of air called pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs in less than 1% of cases requiring lung biopsy.

See also

References

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