had a presence from the earliest days of broadcasting. Among the earliest BBC
programmes in the 1930s was Starlight
, which offered a series of guests from the music hall
era — singers and comedians amongst them. Similarly, many early American television
programs were variety shows including the Texaco Star Theater
featuring Milton Berle
acts often taken from vaudeville
were staples of such shows.
The range of television comedy is extremely broad to the extent that anything under the heading comedy can be put before an audience through the medium of television. However, it is true to say that certain genres of comedy transfer to the small screen more successfully than others.
The situation comedy
, or sitcom
, has been the most common, successful and culturally significant type of television comedy. As the name suggests, these programs feature recurring characters placed in humorous situations. Since the early 1950s with I Love Lucy
in the US and Hancock's Half Hour
in Britain, sitcoms have always had a special place in the hearts of viewers and gathered highly devoted followers, as the familiar characters often become beloved. Often performed before a live audience (or, in some cases, a simulated live audience in the form of a laugh track
), sitcoms are seldom presented as realistic depictions of life but often generate honest humor through the relationships between and ongoing development of characters. Since the debut of I Love Lucy
television has never been without sitcoms and they have often been the most popular and lucrative of all program types. Even in the early 2000s, the cast of the NBC
were among television's highest paid performers.
programs differ from sitcoms in that they do not basically feature recurring characters (though some characters and scenarios may be repeated) and often draw upon current events and emphasize satire
over character development. Sketch comedy was pioneered by Sid Caesar
, whose Your Show of Shows
debuted in 1950 and established many conventions of the genre. American sketch comedy reached a later peak in the mid-1970s with the debut of Saturday Night Live
, originally a variety program but soon devoted mostly to sketches. In the UK, two of the more successful examples are Monty Python's Flying Circus
and Little Britain
has been fairly well represented on television. Stand-up comedians have long been a staple of variety and late-night talk shows; indeed, talk-variety shows such as The Tonight Show
traditionally open with a comedy monologue performed by the program host. Television stand-up reached a peak of popularity on British
schedules with the immensely popular ITV
programme The Comedians
. Their style of comedy was swept away almost entirely in the Britain of the early 1980s when a new generation of stand-ups challenged what they saw as racist and sexist humour and revolutionised the form under the banner alternative comedy
. In the US, stand-up comedy programs became popular on many cable television
channels beginning in the mid-1980s, as such "brick wall" shows (nicknamed for the stereotypical use of a fake brick wall as a backdrop) were cheap to produce and air. Stand-up humour later had mixed fortunes on the small screen, often shunted away to the small hours or as part of a larger entertainment extravaganza.
has recently been popular with television audiences on both sides of the Atlantic, most notably with both British and American versions of the program Whose Line is it Anyway?
have long been a source of comedy on television. Early children's programming often recycled theatrical cartoons; later, low-budget animation produced especially for television dominated Saturday-morning network programming in the US. A few prime-time animated comedies, notably The Flintstones
and The Simpsons
, successfully mixed attributes of traditional cartoons and sitcoms.
In addition to broad comedy program types, comedy often appears on television in much more subtle forms. Comedy is often a necessary part of other programming, particularly drama. Attempts at mixing comedy and drama in various combinations (sometimes known as dramedy) have been attempted over time.
There are many UK comedies in which the format is that of a gameshow, and may give the guests a chance to perform stand up comedy to win a round. Examples of the genre include Have I Got News For You
, 8 Out of 10 Cats
, Mock the Week
and Never Mind the Buzzcocks