Bridges

Bridges

[brij-iz]
Bridges, Calvin Blackman, 1889-1938, American geneticist, b. Schuyler Falls, N.Y., grad. Columbia (B.S., 1912; Ph.D., 1916). In his research he collaborated with T. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturtevant, and H. J. Muller, the group that developed many of the concepts of modern genetics through their study of the fruit fly, Drosophila. He continued with the Morgan group as a research associate of the Carnegie Institution in Washington from 1919. His contributions to modern genetics include the proof of the chromosome theory of heredity, formulation of the theory of genic balance, and the detailed study of giant salivary chromosomes in relation to the positions of genes. He was co-author of The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (1915).
Bridges, Charles, fl. 1683-1740, English portrait painter, active (c.1735-c.1740) in Virginia. He was the most skillful practitioner of aristocratic portrait painting in the South. Among the works attributed to him are Mann Page the Second (Coll. of William and Mary) and Maria Taylor Byrd (Metropolitan Mus.).
Bridges, Harry (Alfred Renton Bridges), 1901-90, American labor leader, b. Melbourne, Australia. Arriving (1920) as an immigrant seaman in San Francisco, he became a longshoreman and militant labor organizer. Bridges led (1934) the West Coast maritime workers' strike, which expanded into an abortive general strike, and in 1937 he set up the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), and became West Coast director of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Proceedings in 1939 to deport him as a Communist alien ended when he was officially absolved of Communist affiliation. The U.S. House of Representatives passed (1940) a bill to deport him, but it was ruled (1945) illegal by the Supreme Court. He became a citizen in 1945. His support of Henry A. Wallace for President in 1948 resulted in his ouster as CIO regional head. He was convicted and sentenced (1950) to a five-year prison term for swearing falsely at his 1945 naturalization hearing that he had never been a member of the Communist party. In 1953, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the indictment for perjury against Bridges, thus voiding his prison sentence. He was reindicted on similar charges, but in 1955 a federal district judge ruled that the government had failed to prove that he was a Communist or that he had concealed that fact when he was naturalized. Shortly thereafter the U.S. Justice Dept. announced it had given up its long fight to deport Bridges. In 1958 he was granted a U.S. passport. In 1971 and 1972 Bridges led the ILWU in a strike that tied up the West Coast waterfront for several weeks.

See study by C. P. Larrowe (1972).

Bridges, Robert Seymour, 1844-1930, English poet. In 1882 he abandoned medical practice to devote himself to writing. An excellent metrist, he wrote many beautiful lyrics and longer poems, noted for their refined simplicity and perfection of form. Although not a well-known poet, in 1913 he was made poet laureate. In 1929, when Bridges was 85, he published The Testament of Beauty, a philosophical poem on the evolution of the human soul. It achieved immediate popularity and is considered his greatest work. Long interested in prosody, Bridges published two important works on the subject, Milton's Prosody (1893) and John Keats (1895). He also published the poems of his friend Gerard Manley Hopkins.

See The Selective Letters of Robert Bridges, ed. by D. E. Stanford (2 vol., 1983); study by D. E. Stanford (1978).

Robert Bridges, gold-point drawing by W. Strang; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Oct. 23, 1844, Walmer, Kent, Eng.—died April 21, 1930, Boar's Hill, Oxford) English poet. He published several long poems and poetic dramas, but his reputation rests on the lyrics collected in Shorter Poems (1890, 1894), which reveal his mastery of prosody. His 1916 edition of the poetry of his friend Gerard Manley Hopkins rescued it from obscurity. He was poet laureate of England from 1913 until his death.

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National monument, southeastern Utah, U.S. Comprising three large natural bridges carved by two winding streams, it was established in 1908. The largest bridge, Sipapu, is 222 ft (68 m) high and spans 261 ft (80 m). Pictographs were carved on another of the bridges, Kachina, by early cliff dwellers.

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orig. Alfred Bryant Renton

(born July 28, 1901, Kensington, near Melbourne, Vic., Austl.—died March 30, 1990, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) Australian-born U.S. labour leader. He arrived in the U.S. as a seaman in 1920, and he soon settled in San Francisco and became active in the local branch of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA). In 1937 he led the Pacific Coast division out of the ILA and reconstituted it as the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), affiliated with the CIO (see AFL-CIO). His aggressive labour tactics and Communist Party connections led the CIO to expel the ILWU in 1950 during a purge of allegedly communist-dominated unions, and opponents tried unsuccessfully to have Bridges deported. He retired as president of the ILWU in 1977.

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(born Jan. 11, 1889, Schuyler Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 27, 1938, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. geneticist. He entered Columbia University in 1909 and assisted Thomas Hunt Morgan in designing experiments using Drosophila that showed that variations in the insect could be traced to observable changes in its genes. These experiments led to the construction of gene maps and proved the chromosome theory of heredity. In 1928 Bridges and Morgan moved to California Institute of Technology, where Bridges continued gene mapping and later discovered an important class of drosophila mutants caused by gene duplications.

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Robert Bridges, gold-point drawing by W. Strang; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Oct. 23, 1844, Walmer, Kent, Eng.—died April 21, 1930, Boar's Hill, Oxford) English poet. He published several long poems and poetic dramas, but his reputation rests on the lyrics collected in Shorter Poems (1890, 1894), which reveal his mastery of prosody. His 1916 edition of the poetry of his friend Gerard Manley Hopkins rescued it from obscurity. He was poet laureate of England from 1913 until his death.

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orig. Alfred Bryant Renton

(born July 28, 1901, Kensington, near Melbourne, Vic., Austl.—died March 30, 1990, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) Australian-born U.S. labour leader. He arrived in the U.S. as a seaman in 1920, and he soon settled in San Francisco and became active in the local branch of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA). In 1937 he led the Pacific Coast division out of the ILA and reconstituted it as the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), affiliated with the CIO (see AFL-CIO). His aggressive labour tactics and Communist Party connections led the CIO to expel the ILWU in 1950 during a purge of allegedly communist-dominated unions, and opponents tried unsuccessfully to have Bridges deported. He retired as president of the ILWU in 1977.

Learn more about Bridges, Harry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 11, 1889, Schuyler Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 27, 1938, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. geneticist. He entered Columbia University in 1909 and assisted Thomas Hunt Morgan in designing experiments using Drosophila that showed that variations in the insect could be traced to observable changes in its genes. These experiments led to the construction of gene maps and proved the chromosome theory of heredity. In 1928 Bridges and Morgan moved to California Institute of Technology, where Bridges continued gene mapping and later discovered an important class of drosophila mutants caused by gene duplications.

Learn more about Bridges, Calvin Blackman with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bridges is the plural form of Bridge.

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