, 1896-1966, French writer, founder and theorist of the surrealist movement. He studied neuropsychology and was one of the first in France to publicize the work of Freud. At first a Dadaist, he collaborated with Philippe Soupault in automatic writing in Les Champs magnétiques
(1921). He then turned to surrealism
, writing three manifestos (1924, 1930, 1934) and opening a studio for "surrealist research." Breton helped to found several reviews: Littérature
(1933), and VVV
(1944). His other works include Nadja
(1928, tr. 1960), a semiautobiographical novel; What is Surrealism?
(1934, tr. 1936); Ode à Charles Fourier
(1946); and L' Art Magique
See biography by M. Polizzotti (1995); study by A. E. Balakian (1971); A. E. Balakian and R. E. Kuenzli, ed., André Breton Today (1989).
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