Branch

Branch

[branch, brahnch]
Rickey, Branch, 1881-1965, American baseball executive, b. Stockdale, Ohio. As manager or executive, he was with the St. Louis Browns (1913-15), the St. Louis Cardinals (1917-42), the Brooklyn Dodgers (1943-50), and the Pittsburgh Pirates (1950-59). He was the first to institute the minor league farm system (1919) and integrated the major leagues by signing (1945) Jackie Robinson to a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

See biography by M. Polner (1982); H. Frommer, Rickey and Robinson (1982).

Cabell, Branch (James Branch Cabell), 1879-1958, American novelist, b. Richmond, Va., grad. William and Mary, 1898. After various experiences as a journalist and a coal miner he began writing fiction. His early works, which are sophisticated novels deriding conventional history, include Gallantry (1907), Chivalry (1909), and The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck (1915). Many of Cabell's most popular novels are set in the imaginary medieval kingdom of Poictesme; among these are The Cream of the Jest (1917), Jurgen (1919)—Cabell's most famous work because of its attempted suppression on charges of obscenity—and The Silver Stallion (1926). Cabell's novels are usually pointedly antirealistic, and many of them can be considered moral allegories. Although he was enormously popular in the 1920s, his highly artifical prose style and subject matter lost favor with critics and public alike by the 1930s. His nonfictional writing includes Beyond Life (1919), The St. Johns (with A. J. Hanna, 1943), and Here Let Me Lie (1947).

See studies by J. L. Davis (1962), D. Tarrant (1967), H. Walpole (1920, repr. 1973), and L. D. Rubin (1959, repr. 1973).

(born Dec. 20, 1881, Stockdale, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1965, Columbia, Mo.) U.S. baseball executive. Rickey began playing professional baseball while a student at Ohio Wesleyan University. In 1917 he began a long association with the St. Louis Cardinals (president, 1917–19; field manager, 1919–25; general manager, 1925–42). In 1919 he devised the farm system of training ballplayers. He later became president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers (1943–50). Defying strong resistance, in 1945 he broke a long-standing race barrier by hiring the first black player in major league baseball. Jackie Robinson played for the Dodgers' farm teams for two years before he was brought up to play as an infielder for Brooklyn in 1947. Rickey was later associated with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1950–59).

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(born Dec. 20, 1881, Stockdale, Ohio, U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1965, Columbia, Mo.) U.S. baseball executive. Rickey began playing professional baseball while a student at Ohio Wesleyan University. In 1917 he began a long association with the St. Louis Cardinals (president, 1917–19; field manager, 1919–25; general manager, 1925–42). In 1919 he devised the farm system of training ballplayers. He later became president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers (1943–50). Defying strong resistance, in 1945 he broke a long-standing race barrier by hiring the first black player in major league baseball. Jackie Robinson played for the Dodgers' farm teams for two years before he was brought up to play as an infielder for Brooklyn in 1947. Rickey was later associated with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1950–59).

Learn more about Rickey, Branch (Wesley) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

A branch (American English , British English ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub). Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs.

While branches can be nearly horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches.

The term "twig" often refers to a terminal branch, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk.

Words

Because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them. In general however, unspecific words for a branch (such as rise and rame) have been replaced by the word branch itself.

Specific terms

A bough can also be called a limb or arm, and though these are arguably metaphors, both are widely accepted synonyms for bough.

A twig is frequently referred to as a sprig as well, especially when it has been plucked. Other words for twig include branchlet, spray, and surcle, as well as the technical terms surculus and ramulus.

Branches found under larger branches can be called underbranches.

Some branches from specific trees have their own names, such as osiers and withes or withies, which come from willows. Often trees have certain words which, in English, are naturally collocated, such as holly and mistletoe, which usually employ the phrase "sprig of" (as in, a "sprig of mistletoe"). Similarly, the branch of a cherry tree is generally referred to as a "cherry branch", while other such formations (i.e., "acacia branch" or "orange branch") carry no such alliance. A good example of this versatility is oak, which could be referred to as variously an "oak branch", an "oaken branch", a "branch of oak", or the "branch of an oak [tree]".

Once a branch has been cut or in any other way removed from its source, it is most commonly referred to as a stick, and a stick employed for some purpose (such as walking, spanking, or beating) is often called a rod. Thin, flexible sticks are called switches, wands, shrags, or vimina (singular vimen).

History and etymology

In Old English there are numerous words for branch, including seten, stofn, telgor, and hrīs. There are also numerous descriptive words, such as blēd (that is, something that has bled, or "bloomed", out), bōgincel (literally "little bough"), ōwæstm (literally "on growth"), and tūdornes (literally "offspringing"). Numerous other words for twigs and boughs abound, including tān, which still surves as the "-toe" in mistletoe.

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