The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be adjusted regularly until the introduction of self adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s brake drums on the front wheels of cars were gradually replaced with disc brakes and now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, with many offering disc brakes on all wheels. However, drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes as it has proved very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a car when it is not in use. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves for both footbrake and handbrake.
Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, and brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements; however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes.
Disc brakes exhibit no self-applying effect because the hydraulic pressure acting on the pads is perpendicular to the direction of rotation of the disc. Disc brake systems therefore require servo assistance.
Rear drum brakes are typically of a leading/trailing design, the shoes being moved by a single double-acting hydraulic cylinder and hinged at the same point. In this design, one of the brake shoes will always experience the self-applying effect, irrespective of whether the vehicle is moving forwards or backwards. This is particularly useful on the rear brakes, where the footbrake must exert enough force to stop the vehicle from travelling backwards and hold it on a slope. Provided the contact area of the brake shoes is large enough, which isn't always the case, the self-applying effect can securely hold a vehicle when the weight is transferred to the rear brakes due of the incline of a slope or the reverse direction of motion.
Front drum brakes may be of either design in practice, but the twin leading design is more effective. This design uses two actuating cylinders arranged so that both shoes will utilize the self-applying characteristic when the vehicle is moving forwards. The brake shoes pivot at opposite points to each other. This gives the maximum possible braking when moving forwards, but is not so effective when the vehicle is travelling in reverse.
The optimum arrangement of twin leading front brakes with leading/trailing brakes on the rear allows for more braking force to be deployed at the front of the vehicle when it is moving forwards, with less at the rear. This helps to prevent the rear wheels locking up, but still provides adequate braking at the rear when it is needed.
In hybrid vehicle applications, wear on braking systems is greatly reduced by energy recovering motor-generators (see regenerative braking), so some hybrid vehicles such as the Toyota Prius use drum brakes.
Brake drums have to be substantial pieces of steel or cast-iron to cope with the forces that are involved which can retain a lot of heat. Heat transfer to atmosphere can be aided by incorporating fins into the design of the drum (see heat sink). However, excessive heating can occur due to heavy or repeated braking which can cause the drum to distort, leading to vibration under braking.
The other consequence of overheating is brake fade. This is due to one of several processes or more usually an accumulation of all of them.
1. When the drums are heated by hard braking, the diameter of the drum increases slightly due to thermal expansion of the material, this means the brakes shoes have to move further and the brake pedal has to be depressed more.
2. The properties of the friction material can change if heated, creating less friction. This is usually only temporary and the material regains its efficiency when cooled, but if the surface overheats to the point where it becomes glazed the reduction in braking efficiency is more permanent. Surface glazing can be worn away with further use of the brakes, but that takes time.
3. Excessive heating of the brake drums can cause the brake fluid to vapourise, which reduces the hydraulic pressure being applied to the brake shoes. Therefore less retardation is achieved for a given amount of pressure on the pedal. The effect is worsened by poor maintenance. If the brake fluid is old and has absorbed moisture it thus has a lower boiling point and brake fade occurs sooner.
Brake fade is not always due to the effects of overheating. If water gets between the friction surfaces and the drum, it acts as a lubricant and reduces braking efficiency. The water tends to stay there until it is heated sufficiently to vapourise, at which point braking efficiency is fully restored.
Disc brakes are not immune to any of these processes, but they deal with heat and water more effectively than drums.
Self adjusting brakes may use a mechanism that engages only when the vehicle is being stopped from reverse motion. This is a traditional method suitable for use where all wheels use drum brakes (most vehicles now use disc brakes on the front wheels). By operating only in reverse it is less likely that the brakes will be adjusted while hot (when the drums are expanded), which could cause dragging brakes that would accelerate wear and increase fuel consumption.
Self adjusting brakes may also operate by a ratchet mechanism engaged as the hand brake is applied, a means suitable for use where only rear drum brakes are used. If the travel of the parking brake actuator lever exceeds a certain amount, the ratchet turns an adjuster screw that moves the brake shoes toward the drum.
The manual adjustment knob is usually at the bottom of the drum and is adjusted via a hole on the opposite side of the wheel. This requires getting underneath the car and moving the clickwheel with a flathead screwdriver. It is important and tedious to adjust each wheel evenly so as to not have the car pull to one side during heavy braking, especially if on the front wheels. Either give each one the same amount of clicks and then perform a road test, or raise each wheel off the ground and spin it by hand measuring how much force it takes and feeling whether or not the shoes are dragging.
It is also commonly used in steelpan ensembles, where it is called "the iron."
Training and technology on the press brake: even during economic downturns, finding an experienced press-brake operator isn't easy. Technology has removed the "black magic" that required finely honed skill. But should that technology replace skill entirely?(METAL FORMING)
Feb 01, 2006; Tom Abeyta stepped onto a fab shop floor in June 33 years ago thinking it would be a summer job. It turned out to be a career....