Definitions

Braga

Braga

[brah-guh]
Braga, Teófilo, 1843-1924, Portuguese intellectual and political leader, b. Ponta Delgada in the Azores. At the Univ. of Coimbra he was a member of the positivist circle of Quental. In 1871 he began to teach at the Univ. of Lisbon, writing voluminously on many subjects. He tried to apply the positivist principles of Comte in his general history of Portuguese Literature (10 vol., 1870-81). A republican and an anticlerical in politics, he was chosen as first president of the new republic of Portugal (1910-11) and served again briefly in 1915. His teaching had a great effect on Portuguese intellectual life, and his writing stimulated interest in Portuguese history and literature. Several collections of his poetry were published during his lifetime.
Braga, city (1991 est. pop. 86,316), capital of Braga dist., NW Portugal, in Minho. It is an agricultural trade center that produces electronics, textiles, and firearms. The ancient Bracara Augusta, it had considerable importance in Roman days, but was of much more importance in the Middle Ages as the see of the bishop of Braga, who rivaled the bishop of Toledo in power. As the seat of Portugal's titular primate, the city is still a religious center. In the old cathedral is the tomb of Henry of Burgundy. Nearby is the well-known pilgrimage site of Bom Jesus doMonte.
Braga a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese and one of the major cities of the country. With a population of 128,138 in the city proper, Braga is the third largest city in Portugal, after Lisbon (Lisboa), Porto (Oporto). Including the suburban parishes, the municipality has a total of 62 parishes and 175,063 inhabitants (2007). Braga is also the center of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho with a population of 826,833 (2007) one of the fastest growing urban areas in the European Union. Under the Roman Empire, as Bracara Augusta, it was capital of the province Gallaecia. The urban area extends from the (river) Cavado to the (river) Este. Braga is serviced by regional and fast trains to Porto and Lisbon. The city of Oporto (Porto) is about 53 km. The present Mayor is Francisco Soares Mesquita Machado, elected from the Socialist Party.

History

For the Ecclesiastical history see Archbishopric of Braga

Antiquity

The region of Braga has been inhabited since pre-historic times, and in the Iron Age the Bracari people occupied the region and built their characteristic fortified villages (castrum). It was the capital of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a tribe who occupied what is now Galicia and northern Portugal. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and during the times of Emperor Augustus (around the year 20 BC) the city of Bracara Augusta was founded in the context of the administrative needs of the new Roman territory. Bracara was dedicated to the Emperor, hence its name Augusta.

. The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension in the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Emperor Diocletianus promoted the city to the status of capital of the newly-founded province of Gallaecia.

During the times of the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, Roman power was dissolved and Bracara Augusta and the whole region of Gallaecia fell into the hands of the Sueves, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Sueves established a Kingdom in the Northwest of Iberia and chose Bracara as capital. But about 584 it passed into the hands of the Visigothic conquerors of Hispania, whose renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist heresies, at two synods held here in the 6th century, marks the origin of its ecclesiastical greatness. The archbishops of Braga retain the title of primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the Hispanic church also; but their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania.

Braga had an important role in the Christianisation of the Iberian Peninsula. The first known bishop of Braga, Paternus, lived in the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius (d. 135 AD) is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius, a friend of Saint Augustine born in Braga, wrote several theological and historical works of great importance. In the 6th century a great figure was Saint Martin of Braga, a bishop of Braga who converted the Sueves from Arianism to Catholicism. He also founded an important monastery near Braga, in Dumio (Dume), now an archaeological site. Several Ecumenic Councils were held in Braga during this period, a sign of the religious importance of the city.

Middle Ages

The history of Braga during Visigothic and Arab times is very obscure and represent periods of decadence for the city. From the Moors, who captured Braga early in the 8th century, the city was retaken in 1040 by king Ferdinand I of Castile and León. From 1093 to 1147 it was the residence of the Portuguese court. The bishopric is restored in 1070 and the first new bishop, Pedro, starts rebuilding the Cathedral, many times modified in the following centuries. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Gerald of Moissac manage to turn Braga into an archbishopric seat, with power over a large area in Iberia. The medieval city develops around the cathedral and covers only a fraction of the ancient Roman city. The maximum authority in the city remains that of the archbishop.

Modern Age

In the 16th century, Braga did not profit from the Age of Portuguese Discoveries, that favoured cities like Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra. This situation was changed by Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches. He also modernised the cathedral by adding a new main chapel in the fashion of the time, the manueline style. Diogo de Sousa turned the mediaeval town into a renaissance city, and many of his improvements can still be seen in modern Braga.

Another golden age for the city was the 18th century, in which archbishops and architects like André Soares and Carlos Amarante dotted the city and surrounding region with beautiful baroque churches and civil buildings. The Municipality, the Public Library building, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many urban palaces date from this period.

The 19th century was a difficult period for the city and the country, which had been invaded by Napoleonic troops. In the second half of that century, the influence of Portuguese immigrants who had lived in Brazil introduced new tastes and improvements in the city architecture and infrastructure.

In the 20th century Braga faced great demographic and urbanistic pressures, and the infrastructure of the city had to be greatly improved to meet the new needs.

Main sights

The city of Braga and surrounding region have many historical monuments,including:the Cathedral(Se),Bom Jesus and Sameiro(Sanctuaries).

In the city center

Churches

Museums

Others

Outside the city centre

Commerce, business and transportation

The major industries in the municipality are construction, metallurgy and mechanics, software development and web design. The computer industry is growing rapidly.

Education, science and technology

The city is the headquarters and main campus for the Universidade do Minho (Minho University), a public university founded in 1973. In the city was established also, in 1967, a branch of the oldest private university of Portugal, the Universidade Católica Portuguesa at Braga.

In the late 2000s a major international research centre was founded in the city - the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory.

Sports

Braga's football (soccer) team, SC Braga plays in the top division of the Portuguese Superliga.

Famous citizens

  • Paulus Orosius (c.385–c.420): Important historian and theologue from the Braga diocese, friend of St. Augustine.
  • Martin of Braga (c.520 – 580): Bishop of Braga that converted the Suevi to Catholicism.
  • Diogo de Sousa (c.1461-1532): Archbishop of Braga after 1505. A great sponsor of the arts, he remodelled the Cathedral and promoted the urbanisation of the city following Renaissance models. He also founded several churches and an important school (the São Paulo School).
  • Francisco Sanches (1550-1623): 16th-century physician born in the Braga diocese and educated in universities in France and Italy.
  • André Soares (1720-1769): 18th century architect, designed several important Rococo buildings in Braga and Northern Portugal.
  • Domingos Leite Pereira: Portuguese politician of the Portuguese First Republic.
  • Martin of Braga: archbishop of Braga
  • Marie Myriam (born Myriam Lopes in Braga,8 of May 1957) french singer of portuguese origens,winner of 1977

Eurivision Song Festival with "L`Oiseau et L`Enfant" ("The Bird and the Child"),witten by Jean Paul Cara and Joe Grace.

Trivia

Sister cities

Parishes

References

External links

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