[boo-lahn-jey; Fr. boo-lahn-zhey]
Boulanger, Georges Ernest, 1837-91, French general and reactionary politician. He served in North Africa and Indochina, and in the Franco-Prussian War. Later, he was briefly commander of French troops in Tunisia. A protégé of Georges Clemenceau, the radical republican leader, he was appointed minister of war in 1886. Appealing to the French desire for revenge against Germany, he attracted the disparate elements hostile to the Third Republic. Boulanger's personal ambition soon alienated his republican supporters, who recognized in him a potential military dictator. Although he was forced from his ministry in 1887 and later deprived of his army command, Boulanger's ardent nationalism increased his mass appeal. Numerous royalists gave him financial aid, although Boulanger saw himself as a future dictator rather than a restorer of kings. Many times elected a parliamentary deputy, he was ineligible for the post until the government retired him from the army (1888); nevertheless, he built up wide electoral support and was overwhelmingly elected in Paris in Jan., 1889. A coup seemed probable, but Boulanger failed to act. Shortly afterward the French government issued a warrant for his arrest for treasonable activity. Boulanger fled to Belgium. After his flight support for him dwindled, and the Boulangists, as his followers were called, were defeated in the general elections of July, 1889. Two years later, while still in exile, he committed suicide.

See studies by J. Harding (1971) and W. D. Irvine. (1988).

Boulanger, Nadia, 1887-1979, French conductor and musician, b. Paris. Boulanger was considered an outstanding teacher of composition. She studied at the Paris Conservatory, where in 1945 she became professor. Boulanger taught at the École normale de Musique, Paris, and (from 1921) at the American Conservatory, Fontainebleau, becoming its director in 1950. As the teacher of such American composers as Walter Piston, Aaron Copland, Virgil Thomson, Roy Harris, and Marc Blitzstein, she has profoundly influenced American music. She often visited the United States, as teacher, lecturer, organist, and guest conductor of the Boston Symphony (1938) and the New York Philharmonic (1939). She was noted for her conducting of choral works. Boulanger's sister Lily (1893-1918) was a distinguished composer.
Several notable persons share the very typical French/Francophone surname Boulanger which is the equivalent of the English surname Baker, of the Italian surname Panettiere, etc...:

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