The arrangement of the scales on top of the head is extremely variable; the number of intrasupraoculars may be anything from 3 to 14. Usually there are 7-9 supralabials and 9-11 sublabials. There are 21-29 midbody dorsal scales, 139-240 ventral scales and 30-86 subcaudals, which are generally divided.
Typical symptoms of bothropic envenomation include immediate burning pain, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, sweating, headache, massive swelling of the bitten extremity, hemorrhagic blebs, local necrosis, bleeding from the nose and gums, ecchymosis, erythemia, hypotension, tachycardia, coagulopathy with hypofibrinogenemia and thrombocytopenia, hematemesis, melena, epistaxis, hematuria, intracerebral hemorrhage and renal failure secondary to hypotension and bilateral cortical necrosis. There is usually some discoloration around the bite site and rashes may develop on the torso or the extremities.
In general, death results from hypotension secondary to hypovolemia, renal failure and intracranial hemorrhage. Common complications include necrosis and renal failure secondary to hypovolemic shock and the toxic effects of the venom.
|Species||Taxon author||Subsp.*||Common name||Geographic range|
|B. alternatus||Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854||0||Urutu||Southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Córdoba, Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Formosa, La Pampa, Misiones, San Luis, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.|
|B. ammodytoides||Leybold, 1873||0||Patagonian lancehead||Argentina in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Córdoba, Chubut, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Neuquén, Río Negro, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz and Tucumán.|
|B. andianus||Amaral, 1923||0||Andean lancehead||Southern mountains of Peru in the departments of Cuzco and Puno at elevations of 1800-3300 m.|
|B. asper||(Garman, 1884)||0||Terciopelo||Atlantic lowlands of eastern Mexico and Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua Costa Rica and Panama. A disjunct population occurs in southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala. In northern South America in Colombia and Venezuela. Also in Ecuador.|
|B. atrox||(Linnaeus, 1758)||0||Common lancehead||Tropical lowlands of South America east of the Andes, including southeastern Colombia, southern and eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and the northern half of Brazil.|
|B. barnetti||Parker, 1938||0||Barnett's lancehead||Along the Pacific coast of northern Peru at low elevations in arid, tropical scrub.|
|B. brazili||Hoge, 1954||0||Brazil's lancehead||Equatorial forests of southern Colombia, eastern Peru, eastern Ecuador, southern and eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Brazil and northern Bolivia.|
|B. campbelli||Freire-Lascano, 1991||0||Ecuadorian toadheaded pitviper||Pacific lowlands and slopes from west-central Colombia to Ecuador.|
|B. caribbaeus||(Garman, 1887)||0||Saint Lucia lancehead||St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles. Apparently restricted to the low elevation periphery of all but the southern third and extreme northern tip of the island.|
|B. colombianus||Rendahl & Vestergren, 1940||0||Colombian toadheaded pitviper||Pacific versant of Colombia.|
|B. cotiara||(Gomes, 1913)||0||Cotiara||Araucaria forests of southern Brazil in the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. In northeastern Argentina in Misiones Province.|
|B. erythromelas||Amaral, 1923||0||Caatinga lancehead||Northeastern Brazil in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, extreme eastern Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe.|
|B. fonsecai||Hoge & Belluomini, 1959||0||Fonseca's lancehead||Southeastern Brazil in the states of northeastern São Paulo, southern Rio de Jeneiro and extreme southern Minas Gerais.|
|B. hyoprorus||Amaral, 1935||0||Amazonian toadheaded pitviper||Northwestern South America in the equatorial forests of southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru and western Brazil.|
|B. iglesiasi||Amaral, 1923||0||Cerrado lancehead||Northeastern Brazil in northern Piaui state.|
|B. insularis||(Amaral, 1922)||0||Golden lancehead||Queimada Grande Island, Brazil.|
|B. itapetiningae||(Boulenger, 1907)||0||São Paulo lancehead||Southeastern Brazil in the states of Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, and on the Paraná Plateau.|
|B. jararaca||(Wied-Neuwied, 1824)||0||Jararaca||Southern Brazil, northeastern Paraguay and northern Argentina (Misiones).|
|B. jararacussu||Lacerda, 1884||0||Jararacussu||Eastern Brazil (from Bahia to Santa Catarina), Paraguay, southeastern Bolivia and northeastern Argentina (Misiones province).|
|B. jonathani||(Harvey, 1994)||0||Cochabamba lancehead||The Altiplano of central Bolivia in the department of Cochabamba, occurring at elevations of 2800-3200 m in dry rocky grassland.|
|B. lanceolatusT||(Bonnaterre, 1790)||0||Martinique lancehead||Martinique, Lesser Antilles.|
|B. leucurus||Wagler, 1824||0||Bahia lancehead||Eastern Brazil along the Atlantic coast from northern Espírito Santo north to Alagoas and Ceará. Occurs more inland in several parts of Bahia. The identity of disjunct populations west of the Rio São Francisco is uncertain.|
|B. lojanus||Parker, 1930||0||Lojan lancehead||Southern Ecuador in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe at elevations of 2100-2250 m.|
|B. marajoensis||Hoge, 1966||0||Marajó lancehead||Northern Brazil in the coastal lowlands of the Amazon Delta.|
|B. microphthalmus||Cope, 1875||0||Small-eyed toadheaded pitviper||Amazonian slopes and lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.|
|B. moojeni||Hoge, 1966||0||Brazilian lancehead||Central and southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (Misiones) and likely eastern Bolivia.|
|B. neuwiedi||Wagler, 1824||11||Neuwied's lancehead||South America east of the Andes and south of approx. 5° south, including Brazil (southern Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, an isolated population in Amazonas, Rondônia and all southern states), Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina (Catamarca, Córdoba, Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán) and Uruguay.|
|B. pictus||(Tschudi, 1845)||0||Desert lancehead||Peru on the hills of the Pacific coastal region and versant up to approx. 1800 m elevation.|
|B. pirajai||Amaral, 1923||0||Piraja's lancehead||Brazil in central and southern Bahia state and possibly also Minas Gerais.|
|B. pradoi||(Hoge, 1948)||0||Brazil in central Espírito Santo state.|
|B. sanctaecrucis||Hoge, 1966||0||Bolivian lancehead||Bolivia in the Amazonian lowlands from the departments of El Beni to Santa Cruz.|
|B. venezuelensis||Sandner Montilla, 1952||0||Venezuelan lancehead||Northern and central Venezuela, including the Cordillera de la Costa (coast range) and the states of Aragua, Carabobo, the Federal District, Miranda, Mérida, Trujillo, Lara, Falcón, Yaracuy and Sucre.|
Cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell death induced by Bothrops alternatus snake venom in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.(Report)
Oct 01, 2007; Abstract: bothrops snake venoms cause renal damage, with renal failure being the main cause of death in humans bitten by...
Inhibition of the myotoxic activity of Bothrops jararacussu venom and its two major myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II, by the aqueous extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. (Apocynaceae).
Jan 01, 2005; Abstract Partial neutralization of the myotoxic effect of bothrops jararacussu venom (BV) and two of its myotoxins...
Evaluation of the effect of aqueous extract of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) on the hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of Bothrops jararaca, using new techniques to quantify hemorrhagic activity in rat skin.
Aug 01, 2005; Abstract Aqueous extracts of Croton urucurana (Sangra D'agua), a plant popularly considered a cicatrizant, were analyzed for...