Book of Common Prayer

Book of Common Prayer

Prayer, Book of Common: see Book of Common Prayer.
Book of Common Prayer, title given to the service book used in the Church of England and in other churches of the Anglican Communion. The first complete English Book of Common Prayer was produced, mainly by Thomas Cranmer, in 1549 under Edward VI. Essentially it was a selection and translation from the breviary and the missal, with some additions from other sources. It was made compulsory by the Act of Uniformity (1549). Revision, undertaken by Cranmer, resulted in the Prayer Book of 1552, which showed the influence of foreign reformers then resident in England, for it made possible a wide diversity of views regarding the Eucharist, all justified by this official service book. The prayer book was in use only about eight months before Queen Mary's repeal legislation restored Roman Catholicism in England. In 1559, under Elizabeth I, the Prayer Book of 1552 was restored in a slightly altered version. From 1645 to 1660, under the Commonwealth and Protectorate, the prayer book was suppressed. In a new revision after the Restoration, it was again declared the only legal service book for use in England by an Act of Uniformity (1662). Alterations in the 1662 revision were largely those making for liturgical improvement. In 1927 a revised form was submitted to Parliament, whose approval was (and is) still required, and passed by the House of Lords but rejected by the Commons; it was resubmitted (with certain modifications) in 1928 and again rejected. Nonetheless, the revised prayer book was quite widely adopted in the Church of England with episcopal approval. This situation was finally legalized by the Prayer Book Measure, passed by Parliament in 1965. In addition to authorizing revisions already in use, the act approved the experimental use of new forms of worship drawn up by a liturgical commission; the Alternative Service Book (ASB) was adopted in 1980 and authorized for use alongside the Book of Common Prayer until the end of 2000. Revision of ASB is underway and under the general title Common Worship some revisions have already been authorized and published. In 1789, when the first General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States met, a revised version of the Book of Common Prayer was adopted; it embodied such changes as were required by the new conditions. In the U.S. Episcopal Church, as in other churches of the Anglican Communion over which the British Parliament has no control, there has been greater freedom in liturgical revision; the last U.S. revision of the Book of Common Prayer was in 1979.

See histories of the prayer book by J. H. Blunt (1868), F. E. Brightman (2d ed. 1921, repr. 1970), J. W. Suter and G. J. Cleaveland, The American Book of Common Prayer (1949); M. H. Shepherd, The Oxford American Prayer Book Commentary (1950); G. Cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy (1969, repr. 1980).

The PEN/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize is an annual award given to outstanding translations into the English language. It has been presented annually by PEN American Center and the Book of the Month Club since 1963.

The distinction comes with a cash prize of USD $3,000. Any book-length English translation published in the United States during the year in question is eligible, irrespective of the residence or nationality of either the translator or the original author.

The award is separate from the similar PEN Award for Poetry in Translation.

Winners

Year Translator Book and author Language
2007

Sandra Smith Suite Française by Irène Némirovsky French
2006

Philip Gabriel Kafka on the Shore by Haruki Murakami Japanese
2005

Tim Wilkinson Fatelessness by Imre Kertész Hungarian
2004

Margaret Sayers Peden Sepharad by Antonio Muñoz Molina Spanish
2003

R.W. Flint The Moon and the Bonfires by Cesare Pavese Italian
2002

Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy Russian
2001

Tiina Nunnally The Cross by Sigrid Undset Norwegian
2000

Richard Sieburth Selected Writings by Gérard de Nerval French
1999

Michael Hofmann The String of Pearls by Joseph Roth German
1998

Peter Constantine Six Early Stories by Thomas Mann German
1997

Arnold Pomerans The Letters of Vincent Van Gogh Dutch
1996

Stanislaw Baranczak and Clare Cavanagh View With a Grain of Sand by Wisława Szymborska Polish
1995

Burton Watson Selected Poems of Su Tung-p'o Chinese
1994

Bill Zavatsky and Zack Rogow Earthlight by André Breton French
1993

Thomas Hoisington The Adventures of Mr. Nicholas Wisdom by Ignacy Krasicki Polish
1992

David Rosenberg The Poet's Bible Hebrew
1991

Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoevsky Russian
1990

William Weaver Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco Italian
1989

Matthew Ward The Stranger by Albert Camus French
1988

Madeline Levine and Francine Prose A Scrap of Time by Ida Fink Polish
1987

John E. Woods Perfume: The Story of a Murderer by Patrick Süskind German
1986
(prose)

Barbara Bray The Lover by Marguerite Duras French
1986
(verse)

Dennis Tedlock Popul Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life Quiché
1985
(prose)

Helen R. Lane The War at the End of the World by Mario Vargas Llosa Spanish
1985
(verse)

Seamus Heaney Sweeney Astray Irish
1984

William Weaver The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco Italian
1983

Richard Wilbur Four Comedies: The Misanthrope, Tartuffe, The Learned Ladies, The School for Wives by Molière French
1982

Hiroaki Sato and Burton Watson From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry Japanese
1981

John E. Woods Evening Edged in Gold by Arno Schmidt German
1980

Charles Simic Homage to the Lame Wolf by Vasco Popa
1979

Charles Wright The Storm and Other Poems by Eugenio Montale Italian
1979

Adrienne Foulke One Way or Another by Leonardo Sciascia Italian
1977

Gregory Rabassa The Autumn of the Patriarch by Gabriel García Márquez Spanish
1976

Richard Howard A Short History of Decay by E. M. Cioran French
1975

Helen R. Lane Count Julian by Juan Goytisolo Spanish
1974

Hardie St. Martin and Leonard Mades The Obscene Bird of Night by José Donoso Spanish
1973

J. P. McCullough The Poems of Sextus Propertius Latin
1972

Richard Winston and Clara Winston Letters of Thomas Mann German
1971

Max Hayward Hope Against Hope by Nadezhda Mandelstam Russian
1970

Sidney Alexander The History of Italy by Francesco Guicciardini Italian
1969

W. S. Merwin Selected Translations 1948-1968 Various
1968

Vladimir Markov and Merrill Sparks (eds.) Modern Russian Poetry Russian
1967

Harriet de Onis Sagarana by João Guimarães Rosa Portuguese
1966

Geoffrey Skelton and Adrian Mitchell Marat/Sade by Peter Weiss German
1965

Joseph Barnes The Story of a Life by Konstantin Paustovsky Russian
1964

Ralph Manheim The Tin Drum by Günter Grass German
1963

Archibald Colquhoun The Viceroys by Federico de Roberto Italian

See also

External links

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