Bond

Bond

[bond]
Bond, Carrie Jacobs, 1862-1946, American songwriter, b. Janesville, Wis. A self-taught musician, she composed about 175 songs, both words and music, gave concerts of them, and even published them herself. Eventually the popularity of such songs as I Love You Truly, Just a-Wearyin' for You, and A Perfect Day earned her a fortune.

See her autobiography, The Roads of Melody (1927).

Bond, George Phillips, 1825-65, American astronomer, b. near Boston, grad. Harvard, 1845. He became the assistant of his father, William Cranch Bond, and in 1859 succeeded him as director of the Harvard College Observatory. Much of his work was done in cooperation with his father. While they were studying Saturn together, George, in 1848, discovered its eighth satellite, Hyperion (which was independently discovered in that same year by the English astronomer William Lassell). His observations led him to reject the previously held theory that the rings of Saturn were of solid structure, though his hypothesis of their being in fluid state was in turn soon discarded. His memoir on the Donati comet of 1858 in the Annals of the Harvard College Observatory, Vol. III, remains one of the most complete descriptions of a great comet that has been written. His revision of his father's work on the Orion nebula was published posthumously. His photographs of the moon created a sensation among astronomers in Europe when taken there in 1851. He was a pioneer in the use of photography in mapping the sky, determining stellar parallax, and measuring double stars. He also used photographs for determining the comparative brightness of the planets.

See E. S. Holden, Memorials of William Cranch Bond and of His Son George Phillips Bond (1897).

Bond, Julian (Horace Julian Bond), 1940-, U.S. civil-rights leader, b. Nashville, Tenn. As a student at Morehouse College, he participated in sit-ins at segregated Atlanta restaurants. He was a founder (1960) of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, serving (1961-65) as its communications director. Elected (1965) to the Georgia assembly, Bond was denied his seat because of his statements opposing the war in Vietnam. Reelected in 1966, he began serving after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld (Dec., 1966) his right to hold office. A state representative until 1974, he then served as a state senator (1975-87). Bond led a group of black delegates to the 1968 Democratic Convention where he challenged the party's unit rule and won representation at the expense of the regular Georgia delegation. In 1986 he lost a Georgia congressional race to John Lewis. In 1998 he became chairman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He is the author of A Time to Speak, a Time to Act (1972).

See biographies by J. Neary (1971) and R. M. Williams (1971).

Bond, Sir Robert, 1857-1927, Newfoundland political leader. He was educated in England and later entered Newfoundland politics. In 1890, he negotiated a reciprocity agreement between Newfoundland and the United States, but protests from the rest of Canada prevented its ratification. After he became prime minister in 1900, he repurchased the railways and docks from private interests. His ministry was marked by attempts to diversify Newfoundland's economy away from fishing and by disputes over U.S. fishing in provincial waters. Bond's government fell in 1909, and his influence quickly declined. He was knighted in 1901.
Bond, William Cranch, 1789-1859, American astronomer, b. Portland, Maine. He early aided his father in the trades of silversmith and clockmaker in Boston. He soon became an expert in the making of chronometers and by 1812 was fashioning most of the superior ones used by ships sailing out of Boston. He developed a passion for astronomy, and, turning part of his home into an amateur observatory, he devoted all his free time to it. In 1815 he was sent by Harvard College to Europe to visit existing observatories and gather data preliminary to the building of an observatory at Harvard. In 1839 the observatory was founded; Bond supervised its construction and became its first director. In 1847 a 15-in. (37.5 cm) telescope, then matched in size by only one other in the world, was installed. With it, Bond made elaborate studies of sunspots, of the Orion nebula, and of the planet Saturn, publishing his results chiefly in the Annals of the Harvard College Observatory. Together with his son he developed the chronograph for automatically recording the position of stars, and he was a pioneer in the use of the chronometer and the telegraph for determining longitude. He and his son George Phillips Bond made the first practical use in America of Daguerre's photographic process applied to astronomy.

See E. S. Holden, Memorials of William Cranch Bond and of His Son George Phillips Bond (1897).

bond, in finance, usually a formal certificate of indebtedness issued in writing by governments or business corporations in return for loans. It bears interest and promises to pay a certain sum of money to the holder after a definite period, usually 10 to 20 years. Security is usually pledged against a bond; unsecured bonds are regarded as a long-term obligation on the capital of the issuing body. Some bonds are convertible upon maturity into the stock of the issuing company. One method used to retire bonds is the sinking fund; in such a case the issuing body buys back some of its bonds each year and holds them itself, applying the interest to the fund. The entire bond issue, most of which the firm has already acquired, is then retired on maturity. In the case of serial bonds, part of the issue is called in and paid for in full each year. Bonds were sold by the U.S. government to finance both World Wars and are still an important money-raising device. Government bonds are backed by the full faith and credit of the government issuing them, including its taxing power, and sometimes also by specifically designated security. Bonds are usually bought by those wishing conservative investment. A junk bond has a risky credit rating because it is issued by companies without an established earnings history or with a questionable credit history. Junk bonds have increasingly been used to help finance the purchase of companies, especially in leveraged buyouts.

See L. A. Jones, Bonds and Bond Securities (4th ed., 4 vol., 1935-50); T. R. Atkinson, Trends in Corporate Bond Quality (1967); A. Rabinowitz, Municipal Bond Finance and Administration (1969); H. D. Sherman and R. E. Schrager, Junk Bonds and Tender Offer Financing (1987); D. R. Nichols, The Personal Investor's Complete Book of Bonds (1988).

bond, chemical: see chemical bond.
or limited obligation bond

Bond issued by a municipality, state, or public agency authorized to build, acquire, or improve a revenue-producing property such as a waterworks, electric generating plant, or railroad. Unlike general-obligation bonds, which are repaid through a variety of tax sources, revenue bonds are payable from specified revenues only, usually the revenues from the facility for which the bond was originally issued. Revenue bonds typically pay interest rates higher than those of general-obligation bonds. The separation of the revenue bond obligation from a municipality's other bond obligations allows the municipality to circumvent legislated debt limits.

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Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. Such a bond forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one neutral atom (typically a metal, which becomes a cation) to another (typically a nonmetallic element or group, which becomes an anion). The two types of ion are held together by electrostatic forces in a solid that does not comprise neutral molecules as such; rather, each ion has neighbours of the opposite charge in an ordered overall crystalline structure. When, for example, crystals of common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) are dissolved in water, they dissociate (see dissociation) into two kinds of ions in equal numbers, sodium cations (Na+) and chloride anions (Cl). Seealso bonding; covalent bond.

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Force holding atoms in a molecule together as a specific, separate entity (as opposed to, e.g., colloidal aggregates; see bonding). In covalent bonds, two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons to give each atom the stability found in a noble gas. In single bonds (e.g., HsinglehorzbondH in molecular hydrogen), one electron pair is shared; in double bonds (e.g., OdoublehorzbondO in molecular oxygen or H2CdoublehorzbondCH2 in ethylene), two; in triple bonds (e.g., HCtriplehorzbondCH in acetylene), three. In coordinate covalent bonds, additional electron pairs are shared with another atom, usually forming a functional group, such as sulfate (SO4) or phosphate (PO4). The number of bonds and the atoms participating in each (including any additional paired electrons) give molecules their configuration; the slight negative and positive charges at the opposite ends of a covalent bond are the reason most molecules have some polarity (see electrophile; nucleophile). Carbon in organic compounds can have as many as four single bonds, each pointing to one vertex of a tetrahedron; as a result, certain molecules exist in mirror-image forms (see optical activity). Double bonds are rigid, leading to the possibility of geometric isomers (see isomerism). Some types of bonds, such as the amide linkages that join the amino acids in peptides and proteins (peptide bonds), are apparently single but have some double-bond characteristics because of the electronic structure of the participating atoms. The configurations of enzymes and their substrates, determined by their covalent bonds (particularly the peptide bonds) and hydrogen bonds, are crucial to the reactions they participate in, which are fundamental to all life. Seealso aromatic compound; compare ionic bond.

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Any of the interactions that account for the association of atoms into molecules, ions, crystals, metals, and other stable species. When atoms' nuclei and electrons interact, they tend to distribute themselves so that the total energy is lowest; if the energy of a group arrangement is lower than the sum of the components' energies, they bond. The physics and mathematics of bonding were developed as part of quantum mechanics. The number of bonds an atom can form—its valence—equals the number of electrons it contributes or receives. Covalent bonds form molecules; atoms bond to specific other atoms by sharing an electron pair between them. If the sharing is even, the molecule is not polar; if it is uneven, the molecule is an electric dipole. Ionic bonds are the extreme of uneven sharing; certain atoms give up electrons, becoming cations. Other atoms take up the electrons and become anions. All the ions are held together in a crystal by electrostatic forces. In crystalline metals, a diffuse electron sharing bonds the atoms (metallic bonding). Other types include hydrogen bonding; bonds in aromatic compounds; coordinate covalent bonds; multicentre bonds, exemplified by boranes (boron hydrides), in which more than two atoms share electron pairs; and the bonds in coordination complexes (see transition element), still poorly understood. Seealso van der Waals forces.

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In finance, loan contract issued by local, state, and national governments and by private corporations, specifying an obligation to return borrowed funds. The issuer promises to pay interest on the debt when due (usually semiannually) at a stipulated percentage of the face value and to redeem the face value of the bond at maturity in legal tender. Bonds usually indicate a debt of substantial size and are issued in more formal fashion than promissory notes, ordinarily under seal. Government bonds may be backed by taxes, or they may be revenue bonds, backed only by revenue from the specific project (toll roads, airports, etc.) to which they are committed. Bonds are rated based on the issuer's creditworthiness. The ratings, assigned by independent rating agencies, generally run from AAA to D; bonds with ratings from AAA to BBB are regarded as suitable for investment. Seealso junk bond.

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Temporary release of a prisoner in exchange for security given to guarantee the prisoner's appearance at a later hearing. It also refers to the actual security given (e.g., cash). Its main use today is to secure the freedom, pending trial, of someone arrested and charged with a criminal offense. Its use in civil (noncriminal) cases is far less common, as most do not involve imprisonment. The amount of bail is generally set in relation to the gravity of the offense, though other factors, such as the strength of the evidence, the character of the accused, and the accused's ability to secure bail may also be considered. Seealso bond, recognizance.

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(born Jan. 14, 1940, Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) U.S. politician and civil-rights leader. The son of prominent educators, Bond graduated from Morehouse College. In 1960 he helped create the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1965 he was elected to the Georgia legislature, but his support of a SNCC statement accusing the U.S. of violating international law in the Vietnam War caused the legislature to deny him his seat. He was twice reelected and was twice more refused entry. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled his exclusion unconstitutional in December 1966, and he assumed his seat in January 1967. He later served in the state senate (1975–87). In 1998 he became chairman of the NAACP.

Learn more about Bond, (Horace) Julian with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bond, bonds, bonded, and bonding may refer to:

Fiduciary bonds

  • Bond (finance), in finance, a debt security, issued by Issuer
    • Government bond, a bond issued by a national government
      • Government bond register, a register of bonds issued by a national government, such as the Canadian Government Bond Register
      • War bonds, a type of government bond used to raise funding for a war effort
    • Municipal bond, a bond issued by a city or local government
    • Bond market, a financial market for bonds
  • Insurance bond (or investment bond), a life assurance-based single premium investment
  • Surety bond, a three party contract, where the surety promises to pay the obligee for non-performance or dishonesty by the principal
    • Performance bond, a surety bond for completion of work under a contract
    • Bail bond, a surety bond for return of a person to a court
  • Tenancy bond (or damage deposit), a deposit taken by a landlord in relation to rental of a property
  • Catastrophe bond (or cat bond), a form of reinsurance
  • Bonded labor (or debt bondage), a system of servitude where someone must work to pay off a debt

Physical sciences

  • Bond number, in fluid mechanics, a dimensionless number expressing the ratio of gravitational forces to surface tension forces
  • Chemical bond, the physical phenomenon of chemical substances being held together by attraction of atoms
  • Bond albedo, a measure of electromagnetic radiation of an astronomical body
  • Bond graph, a graphical description of a physical dynamic system
  • The Bond (Chinese constellation), both a mansion in the White Tiger constellation and an asterism within that mansion

Social sciences

Manufacturing, construction and electronics

Company and product names

Organizations

Entertainment

Places

People

  • Edward Bond (b. 1934) British playwright
  • Edward A. Bond (1849-1929), NY State Engineer and Surveyor 1899-1904
  • Edward August Bond (1813 – 1898), English scientist
  • George Phillips Bond (1825 – 1865), American astronomer, son of William Cranch Bond (above)
  • James Bond (1900 - 1989), American ornithologist
  • Julia Bond (born 1987), American porn star
  • Kit Bond (born 1939), senior United States Senator of Missouri and member of the Republican Party
  • Michael Bond (born 1926), English children's author
  • Oliver Bond (died 1797), Irish revolutionary
  • Samantha Bond (born 1961), British actress, best known for her role of Miss Moneypenny in the fictional James Bond movies
  • Ward Bond (1903 - 1960), American actor
  • William Cranch Bond (1789 – 1859), American astronomer, father of George Phillips Bond (below)
  • William K. Bond (1792 – 1864), American politician

See also

Bonds

Other uses

  • Peace-bonding, something which makes a weapon unusable as a weapon
  • Peace bond, a protection order from a Canadian court
  • Bond of manrent, a Scottish clan treaty

See also

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