City (pop., 2001: city, 11,978,450; metro. area, 16,434,386), capital of Maharashtra state, western India. Located partly on Mumbai Island, it is flanked by Mumbai Harbour and the Arabian Sea. It is India's principal port on that sea and one of the largest and most densely populated cities in the world. The town was acquired by the Portuguese in 1534. It was ceded to the English as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, who married Charles II in 1661. Granted to the East India Company in 1668, it became the company's headquarters until 1708. After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Mumbai grew to be the largest distributing entrepôt in India. It remains India's economic hub and the heart of financial and commercial activity, its cultural and education centre, and headquarters of its film industry.
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Settlement began around 1805. The region was then known as the Town of Macomb, being a part of Macomb's Purchase.
The Town of Bombay was organized from part of the Town of Fort Covington in 1833.
In 1877, the town was devastated by a plague of grasshoppers, which consumed more than half of the field crops.
The St. Regis River flows through the northwest corner of the town.
There were 483 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.1% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the town the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $28,000, and the median income for a family was $34,375. Males had a median income of $27,273 versus $26,029 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,710. About 16.4% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.3% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.