Definitions

body temperature

body temperature

temperature, body: see body temperature; fever.
body temperature, internal temperature of a living organism. Mammals and birds are termed warm-blooded, or homeothermic, i.e., they are able to maintain a relatively constant inner body temperature, whereas other animals are cold-blooded, or poikilothermic, i.e., their body temperature varies according to the temperature of the environment.

Warm-blooded Animals (Homeotherms)

In humans and other mammals, temperature regulation represents the balance between heat production from metabolic sources and heat loss from evaporation (perspiration) and the processes of radiation, convection, and conduction. In a cold environment, body heat is conserved first by constriction of blood vessels near the body surface and later by waves of muscle contractions, or shivering, which serve to increase metabolism. Shivering can result in a maximum fivefold increase in metabolism. Below about 40°F; (4°C;) a naked person cannot sufficiently increase the metabolic rate to replace heat lost to the environment. Another heat-conserving mechanism, goose bumps, or piloerection, raises the body hairs; although not especially effective in humans, in animals it increases the thickness of the insulating fur or feather layer.

In a warm environment, heat must be dissipated to maintain body temperature. In humans, increased surface blood flow, especially to the limbs, acts to dissipate heat at the surface. At environmental temperatures above 93°F; (34°C;), or at lower temperatures when metabolism has been increased by work, heat must be lost through the evaporation of the water in sweat. People in active work may lose as much as 4 quarts per hour for short periods. However, when the temperature and humidity are both high, evaporation is slowed, and sweating is not effective. Most mammals do not have sweat glands but keep cool by panting (evaporation through the respiratory tract) and by increased salivation and skin and fur licking.

Temperature regulatory mechanisms act through the autonomic nervous system and are largely controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain, which responds to stimuli from nerve receptors in the skin. Continued exposure to heat or cold results in some slow acclimatization, e.g., more active sweating in response to continued heat and an increase in subcutaneous fat deposits in response to continued cold.

Environmental extremes may result in failure to maintain normal body temperature. In both increased body temperature, or hyperthermia, and decreased body temperature, or hypothermia, death may result (see heat exhaustion). Controlled hypothermia is used in some types of surgery to temporarily decrease the metabolic rate. Fever, caused by a resetting of the temperature regulatory mechanism, is a response to fever-causing, or pyrogenic, substances, such as bacterial endotoxins or leucocyte extracts. The upper limit of body temperature compatible with survival is about 107°F; (42°C;), while the lower limit varies.

In humans the inner body temperature alternates in daily activity cycles; it is usually lowest in early morning and is slightly higher at the late afternoon peak. In human females there is also a monthly temperature variation related to the ovulatory cycle. In many mammals and birds the body temperature shows more pronounced cyclic variations than in humans. For example, in hibernators the body temperature may lower to only a few degrees above the environmental temperature during the dormant periods; mammalian hibernators reawake spontaneously and in their active period are homeothermic.

Cold-blooded Animals (Poikilotherms)

Reptiles and other poikilothermic animals bask in warm weather and must hibernate in winter. The body temperature of fishes must remain close to that of the surrounding water, because heat is lost directly into the water during respiration; however, in some fishes, such as the bluefin tuna, a special network of fine veins and arteries called the rete mirabile provides a thermal barrier against loss of metabolic heat. The mechanism of temperature regulation in homeotherms is considered an important evolutionary advance in that physical activity in such animals can be relatively independent of the environment.

Basal body temperature is the body temperature measured immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken. In women, ovulation causes an increase of one-half to one degree Fahrenheit (one-quarter to one-half degree Celsius) in basal body temperature (BBT); monitoring of BBTs is one way of estimating the day of ovulation. The tendency of a woman to have lower temperatures before ovulation, and higher temperatures afterwards, is known as a biphasic pattern. Charting of this pattern may be used as a component of fertility awareness.

Hormonal causes of biphasic patterns

The higher levels of estrogen present during the pre-ovulatory (follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle lower BBTs. The higher levels of progesterone released by the corpus luteum after ovulation raise BBTs. The rise in temperatures can most commonly be seen the day after ovulation, but this varies and BBTs can only be used to estimate ovulation within a three day range.

If pregnancy does not occur, the disintegration of the corpus luteum causes a drop in BBTs that roughly coincides with the onset of the next menstruation. If pregnancy does occur, the corpus luteum continues to function (and maintain high BBTs) for the first trimester of the pregnancy. After the first trimester, the woman's body temperature drops to her pre-ovulatory normal as the placenta takes over functions previously performed by the corpus luteum.

Very rarely, the corpus luteum may form a cyst. A corpus luteum cyst will cause BBTs to stay elevated and prevent menstruation from occurring until it resolves, which could take weeks or months.

While trying to conceive

Regular menstrual cycles are often taken as evidence that a woman is ovulating normally, and irregular cycles as evidence she is not. However, many women with irregular cycles do ovulate normally, and some with regular cycles are actually annovulatory or have a luteal phase defect. Records of basal body temperatures can be used to accurately determine if a woman is ovulating, and if the length of the post-ovulatory (luteal) phase of her menstrual cycle is sufficient to sustain a pregnancy.

Pregnancy tests are not accurate until 1-2 weeks after ovulation. Knowing an estimated date of ovulation can prevent a woman from getting false negative results due to testing too early. Also, 18 consecutive days of elevated temperatures means a woman is almost certainly pregnant.

Tracking basal body temperatures are a more accurate method of estimating gestational age than tracking menstrual periods.

While avoiding pregnancy

Charting of basal body temperatures is used in some methods of fertility awareness, and may be used to determine the onset of post-ovulatory infertility. However, BBTs only show when ovulation has occurred; they do not predict ovulation. Normal sperm life is up to five days, making prediction of ovulation several days in advance necessary for avoiding pregnancy. BBT methods often use a rule similar to that of calendar-based methods to determine the beginning of the pre-ovulatory fertile phase.

Measurement

Glass fever thermometers typically have markings every 0.2ºF (0.1ºC). Basal thermometers require accuracy of at least 0.1ºF (0.05ºC), so special glass basal thermometers are sold separately from glass fever thermometers. All digital thermometers generally read to at least 0.1ºF (0.05ºC) and so are suitable for monitoring basal temperatures. Some digital thermometers are marketed as "basal thermometers" and have extra features such as a larger display, expanded memory functions, or beeping to confirm the thermometer is placed properly. Some fertility monitors determine the fertile and infertile portions of the menstrual cycle by interpreting basal body temperature records.

References

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