bodansky unit

List of eponymous medical signs

Eponymous medical signs are those that are named after a person or persons, usually the physicians who first described them, but occasionally named after a famous patient. This list includes other eponymous entities of diagnostic significance; i.e. tests, reflexes, etc.

Letter Sign Name Field Associated conditions External link
(if no internal link)
A Aaron sign Charles Dettie Aaron surgery appendicitis epigastric pain with pressure on McBurney's point
A Abadie's sign Jean Marie Charles Abadie endocrinology Graves' disease levator palpebrae superioris spasm
A Abadie's symptom Joseph Louis Irenée Jean Abadie neurology tabes dorsalis absence of pain on Achilles tendon pressure
A Abderhalden reaction Emil Abderhalden obstetrics pregnancy serum reaction;obsolete
A Abelin reaction Isaak Abelin infectious disease syphilis presence of arsenical anti-syphilitic;obsolete
A Addis count Thomas Addis nephrology pyelonephritis (needed) quantitative cells and casts in 24hr. urine
A Adie pupil William John Adie neurology
A Adson's sign Alfred Adson vascular surgery thoracic outlet syndrome obliteration of radial pulse with manouevres
A Alexander's law ? neurology, neurosurgery, ENT vestibular lesions describes nystagmus in vestibular lesions
A Allen's test Edgar Van Nuys Allen vascular surgery, critical care(1) arterial supply of the hand tests for presence of palmar ulnar-radial anastomosis (palmar arch)
A Apley grind test Alan Graham Apley orthopaedic surgery meniscal lesions manouevres to elicit knee pain
A Argyll Robertson pupils Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson neurology neurosyphilis light-near dissociation
A Arneth count Josef Arneth haematology, nutrition folate deficiency lobulation of neutrophil nuclei
A Aschheim-Zondek test Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek obstetrics normal pregnancy oestral reaction in mouse injected with pregnant urine
A Aschoff body Karl Albert Ludwig Aschoff rheumatology, pathology rheumatic fever foci of interstitial inflammatiuon in the myocardium and elsewhere
A Ashby techniques Winifred Ashby haematology, pathology haemolysis (needed) agglutination test for eryhrocyte survival
A Auberger's blood group Auberger (patient) haematology normal physiology (needed) Aua antigen
A Auenbrugger's sign Josef Leopold Auenbrugger cardiology pericardial effusion bulging epigastrium
A Auer rods John Auer hematology acute myeloid leukemia cytoplasmic inclusions in myeloblasts
A Auspitz's sign Heinrich Auspitz dermatology psoriasis punctate bleeding when scales are scraped
A Austin Flint murmur Austin Flint cardiology aortic insufficiency mid-diastolic rumble heard at apex
B Babinski sign Joseph Babinski neurology abnormal plantar reflex dorsiflexion of the hallux with fanning of the remaining phalanges upon soft stimulation of the lateral plantar surface of the foot
B Bainbridge reflex Francis Arthur Bainbridge cardiology normal physiology increase in heart rate with increase in circulating blood volume
B Balbiani rings Edouard-Gérard Balbiani (needed)
B Ballance's sign Charles Alfred Ballance general surgery abdominal/splenic trauma (needed) percussive dullness left flank, LUQ, percussive rsonance right flank
B Bárány test Robert Bárány ENT,neurology vertigo, vestibulsr dysfunction (needed) nystagmus elicited by hot or cold irrigation of ear canal
B Barlow's maneuver Sir Thomas Barlow, 1st Baronet paediatrics, orthopaedic surgery hip dysplasia (needed) dislocation on adduction of hip
B Bart hemoglobin Barts Hospital Obstetrics, pathology indicates a specific cause of death in some stillborns (needed) Loss of all four alpha-globin genes (total alpha-thalassemia) leads to severely anemic stillborn babies with small amounts of an abnormal hemoglobin composed of four gamma sub-units (Bart's Hemoglobin)
B Bastian-Bruns sign Henry Charlton Bastian, Ludwig Bruns neurology spinal cord transection (needed) loss of muscle tone and reflexes below lesion level
B Battle's sign William Henry Battle neurosurgery/traumatology basal skull fracture mastoid ecchymosis
B Beau's lines Joseph Honoré Simon Beau dermatology, internal medicine multiple, including trauma transverse ridges on nails
B Beck's triad Claude Schaeffer Beck cardiology cardiac tamponade hypotension, increased central venous pressure (JVP), distant heart sounds
B Becker's sign Otto Heinrich Enoch Becker ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis (needed) visible pulsation of retinal arteries
B Beevor's sign Charles Edward Beevor neurology, neurosurgery spinal trauma at T10, als,fsmd caudal movement of navel on cervical flexion
B Bekhterev- Jacobsohn reflex Vladimir Bekhterev, Louis Jacobsohn neurology stroking dorsal radial skin, with forearm in supination, elicits wrist and finger flexion
B Bekhterev-Mendel reflex Vladimir Bekhterev, Kurt Mendel neurology pyramidal tract lesions (needed) toe flexion on percussion of dorsum of foot
B Bence Jones protein Henry Bence Jones hematology multiple myeloma
B Benedict solution Stanley Rossiter Benedict endocrinology diabetes mellitus reagent for presence of monosaccharides
B Berger wave (rhythm) Hans Berger neurology normal physiology (needed) electroencephalographic alpha wave
B Bezold-Jarisch reflex Albert von Bezold, Adolf Jarisch pharmacology, toxicology effect of certain alkaloids (needed) apnea, bradycardia, hypotension
B Bielschowsky's tilt test Alfred Bielschowsky neurology, ophthalmology lesions of cranial nerve iv (needed) test for palsy of superior oblique
B Bing's sign Paul Robert Bing neurology,ENT hearing loss (needed) see Rinne test
B Biot's respiration C. Biot neurology brain stem herniation quick shallow respirations followed by period of apnea
B Bitot's spots Pierre Bitot ophthalmology vitamin A deficiency spots of keratin deposition in the conjunctiva
B Bjerrum scotoma Jannik Peterson Bjerrum ophthalmology glaucoma (needed) comet shaped visual field defect,extending temporally from the physiological blind spot
B Blumberg sign Jacob Moritz Blumberg surgery peritonitis rebound tenderness
B Boas' point Ismar Isidor Boas gastroenterology gastric ulcer (needed) dermal hyperaesthesia just left of T12
B Boas' sign Ismar Isidor Boas gastroenterology acute cholecystitis dermal hyperaesthesia at inferior angle of R scapula
B Bodansky unit Meyer Bodansky (needed)
B Boston's sign L.N. Boston ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis spasmodic ptosis on downward gaze
B Bouchard's nodes Charles-Joseph Bouchard rheumatology osteoarthritis bony outgrowths on dorsa of proximal interphalangeal joints
B Bracht-Wachter bodies Erich Franz Eugen Bracht, H. Wächter cardiology infective endocarditis yellow-white spots in the myocardium
B Branham's sign Henry Branham (needed) pressing on proximal portion of AV fistula results in bradycardia
B Braxton Hicks contraction John Braxton Hicks obstetrics normal pregnancy "false labour". sporadic contractions beginning as early as mid 1st trimester
B Brewer infarcts George Emerson Brewer nephrology, pathology pyelonephritis (needed) dark red wedge shaped areas on kidney section resembling infarcts
B Broadbent inverted sign Sir William Broadbent, 1st Baronet cardiology L atrial hypertrophy (needed) systole palpable in posterior chest wall
B Brissaud's reflex Édouard Brissaud neurology (needed) plantar stimulation elicits contraction of tensor fasciae latae
B Broadbent sign Sir William Broadbent, 1st Baronet cardiology adhesive pericarditis (needed) recession of L inferior intercostal spaces
B Broca aphasia Paul Broca neurology, neuropsychology developmental or other pathology of various frontal cortical areas expressive aphasia
B Brodie-Trendelenburg percussion test Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie,bt., Friedrich Trendelenburg general medicine, surgery varicose veins superficial vein is percussed proximally;if impulse is felt over vein distally, valvular incompetence is present.
B Brodie-Trendelenburg test Benjamin Collins Brodie, Friedrich Trendelenburg general medicine,surgery varicose veins identifies level of valvular incompetence
B Brudzinski neck sign Józef Brudziński neurology meningitis neck flexion elicits hip and knee flexion
B Brudzinski cheek sign Józef Brudzinski neurology meningitis pressure beneath zygoma elicits flexion of forearm
B Brudzinski symphiseal sign Józef Brudzinski neurology meningitis pressure over symphisis pubis elicits knee, hip flexion and leg abduction
B Brudzinski reflex Józef Brudzinski neurology meningitis passive flexion of knee to abdomen elicits flexion of contralateral hip and knee
B Bruit de Roger Henri-Louis Roger paediatric cardiology ventricular septal defect (needed) loud pansystolic murmur
B Bruns ataxia Ludwig Bruns neurology frontal lobe lesions (needed) difficulty moving feet in contact with floor, tendency to fall backwards
B Brushfield spots Thomas Brushfield ophthalmology, genetics Downs' syndrome or non-pathological greyish-white spots at periphery of iris
B Burton line Henry Burton toxicology lead poisoning NEJM 354:e21 5/18/06 Blue discolouration of the gingival border
C Cabot rings Richard Cabot hematology lead poisoning, anaemias threadlike strands in erythrocytes
C Caput medusae Medusa gastroenterology, surgery portal hypertension distended veins radiating from umbilicus
C Cardarelli's sign Antonio Cardarelli cardiology, thoracic surgery aortic arch dilatation or aneurysm, mediastinal tumour left displacement of trachea elicits palpable pulsation of same
C Carey Coombs murmur Carey Coombs cardiology,rheumatology rheumatic fever (needed) mid-diastolic rumble
C Carnett's test John Carnett primary care, surgery abdominal mass and/or pain Am J Med Sci 174 (1927): 579–599 supine patient lifts head from bed;↑ pain - abdominal wall ;↓ pain - intraperitoneal
C Carvallo sign José Carvallo (needed)
C Casal collar Gaspar Casal nutrition pellagra (niacin deficiency) widely variable collar of dermatitis characteristically in c3,c4 dermatomes
C Casoni test Tommaso Casoni infectious disease, tropical medicine hydatid disease (needed) intradermal antigen
C Celsus signs of inflammation Aulus Cornelius Celsus various inflammation 1. Rubor (redness) 2. Tumor (swelling)3. Caldor (heat) 4. Dolor (pain)
C Chaddock reflex Charles Gilbert Chaddock neurology pyramidal lesions, corticospinal tract lesions extension of big toe with stimulation of skin over lateral malleolus
C Chadwick sign James Read Chadwick obstetrics pregnancy cyanosis of vulva, vagina and cervix
C Charcot's triad Jean-Martin Charcot surgery ascending cholangitis jaundice, fever and chills, RUQ pain
C Charcot's Triad Jean-Martin Charcot neurology multiple sclerosis nystagmus, intention tremor ,staccato speech
C Charcot-Leyden crystals Jean-Martin Charcot, Ernst Viktor von Leyden pathology any disorder characterized by eosinophil proliferation, e.g. ascariasis lysophospholipase crystals in various tissues
C Cheyne-Stokes respiration John Cheyne, William Stokes palliative care
C Churchill-Cope reflex Edward Delos Churchill, Oliver Cope (needed)
C Chvostek's sign František Chvostek endocrinology hypocalcemia tapping over facial nerve elicits abnormal muscle contraction(s)
C Claybrook sign Edwin Claybrook emergency medicine, surgery blunt abdominal trauma (needed) heart and/or breath sounds heard through abdominal wall indicate rupture of viscus
C Clutton's joints Henry Hugh Clutton paediatrics hereditary syphilis (needed) painless symmetrical hydrarthroses, particularly of the knees
C Codman's triangle Ernest Armory Codman oncology, orthopaedic surgery, radiology osteosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma triangular subperiosteal growth
C Comby sign Jules Comby paediatrics rubeola (needed) whitish patches on gingiva and buccal mucosa
C Coombs test Robin Coombs hematology hemolytic anemia
C Coons fluorescent antibody method Albert Coons (needed)
C Corrigan pulse Dominic John Corrigan cardiology aortic insufficiency carotid pulsations with abrupt ascending and descending phases
C Councilman body William Councilman infectious disease yellow fever, viral haemorrhagic fevers eosinophilic globules in liver
C Courvoisier's law Ludwig Georg Courvoisier gastroenterology obstructive jaundice palpable gall bladder w/ painless jaundice unlikely to be cholelithiasis
C Crichton-Browne sign Sir James Crichton-Browne neuropsychiatry 'general paresis' (needed) tremor at corners of mouth and of outer canthus
C Crowe sign Samuel Crowe dermatology (?) neurofibromatosis type I axillary freckling
C Cruveilhier-Baumgarten bruit Jean Cruveilhier, Paul Clemens von Baumgarten internal medicine cirrhosis;portal hypertension (needed) periumbilical hum
C Cullen's sign Thomas Cullen surgery intraabdominal haemorrhage ecchymosis around umbilicus predicts onset of acute pancreatitis
C Curschmann spirals Hans Curschmann
C Cushing's triad Harvey Cushing neurology raised intracranial pressure elevated systolic bp, bradycardia, irregular respiration
D Dagher Maneuver Nabil Dagher trauma surgery penetrating pelvic trauma bimanual palpation of foreign object lodged in pelvis with one digit in an incision lateral to the anus and the other digit inserted in the rectum
D Dahl's sign ? pulmonology COPD pigmented calluses on anterior surface of thighs (from leaning on elbows)
D Dalrymple sign John Dalrymple ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis widened palpebral opening
D Dance's sign Jean-Baptiste Hippolyte Dance (paediatric)surgery ileo-cecal intussusception empty LLQ (retracted iliac fossa)
D Darier's sign ? allergy,dermatology urticaria pigmentosa dermatographia
D Dawson's fingers james walker dawson neurology multiple sclerosis characteristic fingerlike appearance of lateral ventricle on mri, ct, or at autopsy
D De Musset's sign ? cardiology aortic insufficiency head nodding in time with heartbeat
D Dennie's lines also Dennie's fold ? dermatology atopic dermatitis () accentuated fold in the inferior palpebrum
D Destot's sign ? orthopaedic surgery pelvic fracture ecchymosis superior to inguinal ligament, in scrotum or of thigh
D Dix-Hallpike test ? general medicine Otoconia crystals in inner ear Elicitation of extreme vertigo upon lateral movement of a patient's head when lying in a supine position is indicative of a condition known as Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
D Döhle bodies - Karl Gottfried Paul Döhle pathology various including trauma and neoplasm basophilic inclusions in peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils
D Doi's sign ?
D Dunphy sign ? surgery appendicitis increase in abdominal pain on coughing
D Duroziez's sign ? cardiology aortic insufficiency double bruit heard over femoral artery when it is compressed distally (see Traube's sign)
E Elschnig spots Anton Elschnig ophthalmology hypertensive retinopathy
E Epstein's pearls ? paediatrics normal newborn cystic papules on palate
E Ewart's sign ? cardiology pericardial effusion percussive dullness, aegophony and bronchial breath sounds at L scapular tip
F Finkelstein's test Harry Finkelstein rheumatology DeQuervain's tenosynovitis
F Forschimer spots ? (needed)
F Fothergill's sign ?
F Fox's sign George Henry Fox gastroenterology haemorrhagic pancreatitis (needed) ecchymosis of inguinal ligament (blood tracks retroperitoneally)
F Frank's sign ? (needed)
F Friedreich's sign ? cardiology constrictive pericarditis, tricuspid insufficiency collapse of distended neck veins at diastole
F Froment's sign Jules Froment neurology ulnar nerve palsy patient required to hold paper between thumb and palm (against attempt to withdraw);ability to do so is assessed
Gaenslen's test
G Gallavardin phenomenon ? cardiology aortic stenosis (needed) dissociation of musical and noisy elements in ejection murmur
G Gandy-Gamma nodules ? (needed)
G Gerhardt's sign Carl Jakob Adolph Christian Gerhardt controversial: see references
G Goetz sign ? (needed)
G Gond's maneuver ? (needed)
G Goodell's sign ? obstetrics
G Goodsall's rule ? gastroenterology, general surgery anal fistula anatomical relationships, differentiation of fistula types
G Gordon's maneuver ? (needed)
G Gottron's papules ? rheumatology dermatomyositis roseate discolouration over knuckles
G Gowers' sign (Gowers' maneuver) William Richard Gowers neurology muscular dystrophy
G Graham Steell murmur ? (needed)
G Grey Turner's sign George Grey Turner surgery retroperitoneal hemorrhage flank ecchymosis
G Griffith's sign ? (needed)
G Grotton's lesions ? (needed)
G Gunn's sign ? (needed)
H Hamman's sign Louis Hamman thoracic surgery oesophageal perforation w/ pneumomediastinum crepitus in sync w/ heartbeat but not respiration
H Hampton's hump Aubrey Otis Hampton pulmonolgy, radiology pulmonary embolus w/ infarct wedge shaped consolidation at periphery w/ base distal
H Hannington-Kiff sign ? (needed)
H Harrison's groove ?
H Hatchcock's sign ? paediatrics, infectious disease mumps (needed) tenderness behind angle of jaw (typically before swelling is evident)
H Heberden's node William Heberden rheumatology osteoarthritis same as bouchard's nodes, but over dip joints
H Hegar's sign Ernst Ludwig Alfred Hegar obstetrics normal pregnancy softening of cervical isthmus appearin between 4th and 6th weeks (usually)
H Hess test ? (needed)
H Hippocratic face Hippocrates palliative care impending death
H Hippocratic fingers Hippocrates pulmonary medicine chronic hypoxia clubbing of distal phalanges
H Hirschberg test Julius Hirschberg ophthalmology strabismus corneal reflection centred (-) or not centred (+) on pupil
H Hoffman's sign Johann Hoffman neurology corticospinal tract lesions tapping distal phalanx of 3rd or 4th finger elicits flexion of same in thumb
H Hollenhorst plaque Robert Hollenhorst ophthalmology hypertension, coronary artery disease, and/or diabetes cholesterol embolus(i) of retinal artery(ies)
H Homan's sign John Homans deep venous thrombosis knee bent, ankle abruptly dorsiflexed,popliteal pain
H Hoover's sign Charles F. Hoover neurology, psychiatry lower extremety paresis (needed) differentiates organic from non-organic etiology
H Howship-Romberg sign ? (needed)
H Hutchinson freckle ? (needed)
H Hutchinson pupil ? (needed)
H Hutchinson's sign ? (needed)
H Hutchinson's teeth also Hutchinson's incisors Sir Jonathan Hutchinson pediatrics congenital syphilis small,widely spaced incisors,w/ notched biting surfaces
H Hutchinson's triad Sir Jonathan Hutchinson [paediatrics congenital syphilis interstitial keratitis,nerve deafness, Hutchinson's teeth
J Janeway lesion Theodore Caldwell Janeway cardiology infective endocarditis palmar or plantar erythematous or haemorrhagic papules
J Jendrassik maneuver Ernő Jendrassik neurology hyporeflexia compares patellar reflex w/ and w/o distraction
J Joffroy sign ?
J John Thomas sign aka Throckmorton sign N/A radiology various, including Reiter's syndrome (needed) penile shadow points at affected hip (+) or unaffected hip (-) (2)
J Jolly test Friedrich Jolly neurology myasthenia gravis or Lambert-Eaton syndrome (needed) sources conflict on procedure, but agree it is to differentiate these disorders
J Jones criteria ? (needed)
K Kanavel's sign ? orthopedics,rheumatology tenosynovitis of flexor digitorum tendon (1) finger held in slight flexion, (2) fusiform swelling, (3) tenderness along the flexor tendon sheath, and (4) pain with passive extension of the digit.
K Kayser-Fleischer ring ? neurology,gastroenterology Wilson's disease(hepatolenticular degeneration) ring of brownish copper deposit at corneo-scleral junction
K Kehr's sign Hans Kehr trauma surgery ruptured spleen referred pain to L shoulder
K Kelly's sign Howard Atwood Kelly surgery (needed) visible response of ureter when touched (means of identifying same)
K Kerley lines Peter Kerley radiology pulmonary edema
K Kernig's sign Woldemar Kernig neurology meningism,meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage hip and knee fully flexed, extension of knee elicits pain and/or opisthotonus
K Koebner's phenomenon Heinrich Koebner dermatology various conditions
K Koeppe's nodules Leonhard Koeppe ophthalmology uveitis granulomatous nodules at pupillary margin
K Koplik's spots Henry Koplik pediatrics measles
K Korotkoff sounds Nikolai Korotkov cardiology auscultatory sphygmomanometry Korotkov described 5 sounds. Only the first (the onset of audible sound,and corresponding to systolic pressure) and the fifth (sound becomes inaudible,corresponding to diastolic pressure) are of practical clinical significance (however,see:Auscultatory gap)
K Kussmaul breathing or respiration Adolph Kussmaul endocrinology metabolic acidosis laboured deep breathing with normal or reduced frequency
K Kussmaul's sign Adolph Kussmaul cardiology various, including right side failure increased jugular distension on inspiration
K Kveim test Morten Ansgar Kveim pulmonary medicine sarcoidosis intradermal injection of lymphatic extract from known sufferer; obsolete
L Lachman maneuver John Lachman orthopedic surgery anterior cruciate ligament injury modified anterior drawer test with knee in less flexion
L Ladin's sign ? obstetrics normal pregnancy softening of uterus; same as Hegar's sign
L Lancisi's sign ?
L Lasègue's sign Charles Lasègue neurosurgery, orthpaedic surgery lumbar disc lesions, sciatica better known as straight leg raise test
L Leopold's maneuver ? obstetrics determination of fetal lie
L Leser-Trelat sign ? internal medicine malignant neoplasm sudden onset of multiple pruritic seborrheic keratoses
L Levine's sign ?
L Lhermitte's sign Jean Lhermitte neurology
L Lisch nodule Karl Lisch ophthalmology type I neurofibromatosis yellow brown hamartomata on iris
L Lisker's sign ? internal medicine deep venous thrombosis tenderness on percussion of antero-medial tibia
L Litten's sign ? cardiology infective endocarditis eMedicine cotton-wool exudate in the retina
L Louvel's sign ? internal medicine deep venous thrombosis (needed) valsalva (cough, sneeze)increases pain along course of suspect vein;proximal pressure prevents this
L Lowenberg's sign ? deep vein thrombosis
M MacDonald triad John M. MacDonald psychiatry sociopathic personality disorder eneuresis, firesetting and animal torture predictive of future criminal behaviour
M Macewen's sign Sir William Macewen neurology, neurosurgery hydrocephalus, brain abscess resonance on percussion of fronto-temporo-parietal suture
M Magnan's sign ? (needed)
M Mantoux test Charles Mantoux infectious disease tuberculosis intradermal protein derivative - diameter of wheal evaluated
M Marcus Gunn pupil Robert Marcus Gunn ophthalmology, neurology severe retinal disease, lesion of optic nerve anterior to chiasm reduced pupillary response when light swings from affected side
M Marie's sign ? (needed)
M Markle sign ? (needed)
M Mayne's sign ? (needed)
M McBurney's point Charles McBurney surgery appendicitis 2/3 of the way lateral on a line from umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine (corresponds to junction of vermiform appendix and cecum)
M McConnell's sign ? cardiology pulmonary embolus (needed)
M McDonald's sign ? (needed)
M McMurray test Thomas Porter McMurray orthopaedics meniscal tear knee extended, valgus stress applied, leg rotated produces palpable or audible click
M Means-Lerman scratch ? (needed)
M Mees' lines R.A. Mees toxicology arsenic or heavy metal poisoning transverse white lines across the nails
M Mentzer index ? hematology microcytic anemia differentiates iron deficiency anaemia from beta thalassaemia
M Miller-Fisher test ? (needed)
M Monash sign ? (needed)
M Möbius's sign ? (needed)
M Muehrckle's nails ? (needed)
M Mulder's sign ? (needed)
M Müller's maneuver ?
M Müller's sign Friedrich Müller cardiology aortic insufficiency visible pulsation or bobbing of uvula
M Murphy's punch sign John B. Murphy perinephric abscess
M Murphy's sign John B. Murphy surgery cholecystitis hesitation on inspiration while gall bladder is palpated
M Myerson's sign ? neurology Parkinson's disease inability to resist blinking when glabella is percussed
N Naegele's rule Franz Karl Naegele gynecology gestation method of estimating due date
N Nardi test George Nardi gastroenterology dysfunction of sphincter of Oddi administration of morphine and neostigmine reproduces sharp LUQ pain; not in general use
N Nikolsky's sign ? dermatology various,including pemphigus vulgaris mild shear stress applied to skin, bulla forms
O O'Brien's test ? (needed)
O O'Donoghue's triad D. O'Donoghue orthopaedics, sports medicine knee injury coincidence of anterior cruciate injury,medial collateral injury and meniscal tear
O Oliver's sign William S. Oliver cardiology aortic arch aneurysm caudal movement of trachea with systole
O Oppenheim's sign ? (needed)
O Ortolani's sign Marino Ortolani pediatrics & orthopedics congenital hip dislocation /ortolanis_test_for_congenital_hip_dislocation
O Osborn wave J.J. Osborn cardiology, emergency medicine hypothermia positive deflection at QRS-ST junction
O Osler's node Sir William Osler,bt. internal medicine various, including SBE and SLE painful red lesions on the pads of the fingers and plantar surfaces
O Osler's sign Sir William Osler, 1st baronet Osler internal medicine atherosclerosis falsely elevated bp reading due to incompressibility of calcified vessels
P Palla's sign ? (needed)
P Pastia's sign Dominic Pastia paediatrics scarlet fever (needed) (Associated with Scarlatiniform rash and strep pyogenes) lines of confluent petechiae in skin creases
P Patrick's test ? sacroiliitis
P Pemberton's sign ? thoracic surgery retrosternal mass w/ superior vena cava syndrome arms elevated over head elicits facial plethora, distended neck veins and inspiratory stridor
P Phalen's maneuver George Phalen physiatry, rheumatology, hand surgery carpal tunnel syndrome 30-60 seconds of full forced flexion of wrist elicits symptoms
P Piskacek's sign ? obstetrics normal pregnancy (needed) palpable lateral bulge at tubal-uterine junction; present at 7-8 weeks
P Plummer's nail ? (needed)
P Pratt's sign ? internal medicine deep venous thrombosis (needed) pain elicited by compression of posterior calf
Q Queckenstedt's maneuver ? spinal stenosis
Q Quincke's sign ? cardio;ogy aortic insufficiency visible pulsation in ungual capillary bed
R Reynolds' pentad B.M. Reynolds gastroenterology ascending cholangitis Charcot's triad + hypotension and altered mental state
R Riesman's sign ? (needed)
R Rigler's sign aka double wall sign Leo G. Rigler radiology, abdominal surgery pneumoperitoneum gas outlines both mucosal and serosal surfaces of bowel
R Rinne test Heinrich Rinne ENT,neurology,audiometry hearing loss comparison of air conduction to bone conduction differentiates sensorineural from conductive deafness
R Romana's sign Cecilio Romana tropical medicine Chagas' disease painless unilateral periorbital swelling
R Romberg test Moritz H. Romberg neurology, other dorsal column lesions, cerebllar lesions, etoh intoxication differentiates proprioceptive from cerebellar ataxia
R Rosenbach's sign ? (needed)
R Roth's spots ? ophthalmolgy, internal medicine various, including SBE and systemic vasculitides (needed) retinal haemorrhages w/ pale centres
R Rovsing's sign Niels Rovsing Kimpel eneral surgery appendicitis palpation of LLQ elicits pain in RLQ
R Rumpel-Leede sign ? (needed)
R Russell's sign ? psychiatry bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa scarring of the dorsum of one hand(contact with incisors when purging)
S Salus's sign ? (needed)
S Schafer's maneuver ? (needed)
S Schamroth's window test Leo Schamroth pulmonolgy,cardiology chronic hypoxia identifies clubbing of distal phalanges
S Schilling test ? internal medicine, gastroenteroogy pernicious anaemia, coeliac disease, other malabsorption disorders B12 radioassay;rare
S Schirmer's test ? ophthalmology keratoconjunctivitis sicca,as in Sjogren's syndrome quantifies lacrimal secretion
S Schober test Paul Schober physiatry, rheumatology, orthopaedics various disorders of lumbar vertebrae quantifies lumbar flexion
S Shone's complex ? (needed)
S Siegrist streaks August Siegrist ophthalmology malignant hypertension hyperpigmented sreaks parallel to choroidal vessels
S Sims-Huhner test ? (needed)
S Simmonds' test Franklin A. Simmonds orthopaedics Achilles' tendon rupture squeezing of calf fails to produce plantarflexion if A. tendon is ruptured
S Sister Mary Joseph sign (Sister Mary Joseph nodule) Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey (born Julia Dempsey) oncology various abdominal malignancies palpable lymph node in the umbilicus
S Spurling's test ? (needed)
S Stellwag's sign Karl Stellwag von Carion ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis infrequent and/or incomplete blinking, accompanied by Dalrymple's sign
S Still's murmur ? paediatric cardiology subaortic stenosis, small VSD systolic ejection sound ;vibratory/musical;best heard at left lower sternal border
S Stransky's sign ? (needed)
S Stroop test John R. Stroop neuropsychology various, including ADHD and schizophrenia reaction times for incongruent stimuli (e.g., word red printed in blue)
S Strümpell's sign Adolph Strümpell neurology spastic pareses of the lower extremity (needed) failure of abrupt passive flexion of the hip and/or knee to elicit dorsiflexion and adduction of foot
T Terry's nails ? internal medicine various including hepatic failure white 'ground glass' nails;absence of lunula
T Tinel's sign Jules Tinel neurology neuritis, compression disorders 'DTP' - distal tingling on percussion
T Todd's paresis Robert Bentley Todd neurology seizure disorders focal weakness for as much as 48 hours after seizure
T Traube's sign Ludwig Traube various splenomegaly dull percussion sound over Traube's space
T Trendelenburg's sign Friedrich Trendelenburg neurology,physiatry superior gluteal palsy, other causes of hip adductors weakness pelvic tilt contralateral to 'stance leg'
T Trousseau's sign of malignancy Armand Trousseau internal medicine various malignancies, including pancreatic spontaneous thrombosis of multiple veins, including portal circulation
T Trousseau's sign of latent tetany Armand Trousseau internal medicine,endocrinology hypocalcaemia in hypocalcaemia, occlusion of brachial artery induces carpal spasm
U Uhthoff's phenomenon Wilhelm Uhthoff neurology multiple sclerosis ↑ in neurological symptoms w/ exercise
U Unterberger test Siegfried Unterberger neurology, ENT vestibular lesions patient walks in place with eyes closed;direction of rotation indicates vestibular lesion on that side
V Virchow's triad Rudolf Virchow hematology etiology of thrombosis
V Von Braun-Fernwalds sign ? (needed)
V Von Graefe sign ? endocrinology goiter ' lid lag'; immobility of upper lid on downward gaze
W Wada test Juhn A. Wada neurology epilepsy, anatomical lesions of cerebrum short acting barbiturate injected in internal carotid;lateralizes language function
W Waddell's signs G. Waddell primary care, psychiatry chronic pain identify non-organic sources of low back pain
W Waddell's triad ? paediatric trauma pedestrian stuck by motor vehicle Head trauma, thoracic and/or abdominal trauma, femoral trauma
W Watson's water hammer pulse ? cadiology various, including aortic insufficiency bounding forceful pulse elicitd with postural manoeuvres
W Whipple's triad Allen Whipple endocrinology hypoglycemia 1.symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia 2. measured low serum glucose 3. relief of symptoms w/ administration of glucose p.o. or iv
W Wickham's striae Louis Frédéric Wickham dermatology lichen planus white or greyish lines on the lichen planus lesions
W Widal test Georges-Fernand Widal salmonella spp. brucella spp. serum agglutination; obsolete(?)
W Winterbottom's sign ? tropical medicine trypanosomiasis posterior cervical chain adenopathy
W Wolff-Parkinson-White triad ? (needed)
W Wright's maneuver ? (needed)
Yeoman's test


(1) If the palmar arch is not present,radial artery stick for blood gasses is contraindicated.

(2) It is important for the reader to see the article or the external link.

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