Definitions

Blois

Blois

[blwa]
Blois, town (1990 pop. 51,549), capital of Loir-et-Cher dept., central France, in Orléanais, on the Loire River. A commercial and industrial center with an outstanding trade in wines and brandies, it is also one of the most historic towns of France. The counts of Blois emerged in the 10th cent. as the most powerful feudal lords of France. Their line began with Thibaut the Cheat, who by various means acquired Touraine and Chartres; his successors added (11th-12th cent.) Champagne, Brie, and other lands, although in the west they were checked by the counts of Anjou. The last count of Blois, childless and heavily in debt, sold his fief to Louis, duc d'Orléans, who took possession in 1397. With the accession (1498) of Louis' grandson, Louis XII, as king of France, the countship passed to the crown as part of Orléanais. The town was a favorite royal residence. Louis XII was born in the Renaissance château there. Several States-General of France were held in the château, notably in 1576-77 and in 1588; Henri, duc de Guise, was assassinated there in 1588. The Treaties of Blois, signed in 1504-5, were a temporary settlement of the Italian Wars.

Blois is a city and commune in France, the préfecture (capital) of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours.

Sights

The famous Château de Blois, a Renaissance château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, and an 18th century stone bridge spans the Loire. As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills, winding and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. To the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a remainder of the heavy woods that once covered the area.

History

Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, and the city gained some notability in the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful countship with «Blisum castrum» («Le château de Blois»). In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel accusation against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews (by some accounts 40) being burned to death. In 1196, Count Marie granted privileges to the townsmen; a commune, which survived throughout the Middle Ages, probably dated from this time. The counts of the Châtillon line resided at Blois more often than their predecessors, and the oldest parts of the château (from the 13th century) were built by them. In 1429, Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orleans. After his captivity in England, Charles of Orleans in 1440 took up his residence in the château, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII, was born. In the 16th century Blois was often the resort of the French court. The Treaty of Blois, which temporarily halted the Italian Wars, was signed there in 1504-1505.

The city's inhabitants included many Calvinists, and in 1562 and 1567 it was the scene of struggles between them and the supporters of the Catholic church. In 1576 and 1588 Henri III, king of France, chose Blois as the meeting-place of the States-General, and in 1588 he brought about the murders of Henry, duke of Guise, and his brother, Louis, archbishop of Reims and cardinal, in the Château, where their deaths were shortly followed by that of the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henri IV, exiled from the court, lived at the château, which was soon afterwards given by King Louis XIII to his brother Gaston, Duke of Orleans, who lived there till his death in 1660.

The bishopric, seated at Blois Cathedral, dates from the end of the 17th century. In 1814 Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon I.

Blois was occupied during World War II by the German army, which took the city on June 18, 1940. The city was liberated by American soldiers during the last two weeks of August, 1944. On both occasions, the city withstood several days of bombing.

Miscellaneous

Births

Blois was the birthplace of:

Twin towns

Blois is twinned with:

Fictional references

Athos, the count of La Fère (from Alexandre Dumas' "Les Trois Mousquetaires") has a castle in Blois, in "Vingt Ans Après" and "Le Vicomte De Bragelonne" (still from the same author).

References

External links

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